-The tone quality (not good or bad) of sound
-The reason a Violin and Trumpet sound different
*lowest pitch---> fundamental
-Primary sound caused by a column of air vibrating. – Trumpet, Flute, Organ etc.
-sound produced by a vibrating membrane
-Sound caused by the body of the instrument vibrating (cowbell, wood blocks)
-Sound produced by a vibrating string.
*Lute- Has a body and a neck
*Zither- Only has a body
-Listen beyond the surface
-What different sounds are there
- How is it organized
-Where is it from?
-Composed or improvised
-Metric or non metric
-Purpose? (worship, entertainment, life event)
Music of Africa
Call and Response
- Single “voice: answered by others, back and forth.
Interlocking Parts (linear)
- Many parts designed to fit together and sound like one part, Africa, Indonesia.
-Group activities, ceremony, war, multimedia approach etc.
-EX. Postal Workers
- Interlocking parts
(listening to a work song, preformed by postal workers.) (work music, keep up with there work, more fun, more interesting.)
*** All instrumentation was work oriented. Percussion was the stamps being placed. Whistling.
Agbekor Demo CD1-15 pgs. 101-107***** TEST
Music and Dance of EWE
****** Listening example cd 1 track 15 ******
*Starts with bell. Then shaker comes in, Next is the bell along with the Konga (kaganu), Kidi.
Agbekor (cd1-16) pgs. 108-112
Music and Dance of the EWE
Ewe people now in Ghana and Togo. Originally war music- now cultural heritage specialist music. Ensemble: Membranophones, Idiophones, Voices.
“Listen to the bell”
Bell commands everything.
Mande- Gambia/Sengal (West Africa)
-Jalie- Special preformer, tells stories, keep histories, musicans, Historically very important, royal entertainers.
Instruemnts of Mande
-Kora- 21 string “bridge-harp” Chordophone
-Pluked Long-necked lute.
Lambango cd1- 17
-Kora had repeated part as accompaniment
-Singer uses chant/speech as well as sings.
-Song is about 3 famous 20th C. Gambian leaders (text pgs. 120-122) -Non-metric. Composed/improvised.
- Lunsi-Special performers like Jali of Mande people
- Use voice and “talking drums”
- Luna- lead drum (membranophone)
Nag Biegu cd 1 -18
-Luna- “talking drum”
- Call and response (drums)
- Praises king of late 1800's
-Listen for catchy drum “hook”
(has a lot of percussion)
-previously British run Rhondesia
-Wood box with many metal spines
-Used in spiritual ceremonies
-Chunning- overall sound and tuning.
Nhemamusasa cd 1-19
-one of the oldest most important pieces
-Ceremonial- calls spirits
-Various Plucking patterns
Thomas Mapfumo and the Blacks Unlimited.
-Genre- Chumurenga (word means struggle)
-Certain artist and songs banned by government
-Lyrics have “code words” - hidden meanings.
Nyarai cd 1-20
-Western pop influence, drums, guitar, keyboards.
-Mertic, composed with improvised parts.
-Interplay of guitar and ball reflect mbira music
-Lyrics praise those who struggle for freedom.
-text pages 136-137
BAAKA- Central african Republic
-Traditionally semi-nomadic hunter gatherers
-read text comments on history and primitivism pg. 138-139
-Music is inclusive, non-specialist, participatory.
Makala cd 1-21
-drums, sticks, hand-claps, many voices.
-Voices layered interlocking parts
-Vocables- vocal sounds with no meaning. “nonsense Words” little text (pg 142) -Yodel
-Metric, mostly improvised.
Influence on Western...
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