Music History 1 Listening Study

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  • Topic: Gregorian chant, Medieval music, Organum
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Listening Exam - Music History 1

Epitaph of Seikilos
Song (epigram)
First Century C.E.
* sung in Greek

Brief song inscribed on a tombstone dating from the 1st century C.E. The singer is accompanied by a lyre or other plucked string instrument The music follows the rhythms of the text (melody)
The poem sung is an ‘epigram’ (a short verse that makes a pointed remark) Uses vocal notes of the diatonic Iastian tonos
There are major 3rds that begin or end the last 3 phrases (bright sounding) There is a rising fifth at the opening

Mass of Christmas Day
(Gregorian Chant Mass)

Introit: Puer natus est nobis (unto us a child is born)

- sung in Latin
Sung portion of Mass begins with Introit
Proper chant
antiphon
Form of text - antiphon, one psalm verse, the Lesser Doxology, and repetition of the antiphon producing the form ABB’A In mode 7
Introduced to Mass between 4th and 7th centuries
Introits psalm verse followed recitational formula
Sung during entrance procession of those conducting the mass

Gradual: Viderunt omnes (all have seen)

- sung in Latin
Melody is in mode 5
Proper chant
Exemplifies responsorial psalmody
Soloist sings opening phrase then is joined by choir
In Middle Ages it had ABA form, but in modern practice the repetition Is often omitted

3 Wipo of Burgundy: Victimae Paschali laudes (Christians, to the Paschal victim) (CA. 995 - CA. 1050)

Type of work: Sequence
written in Latin
From the first half of the 11th century

Widely used and associated with Easter
Text describes Jesus’ resurrection and the redemption that Christians believe Possible that Wipo wrote text and music but also possible piece was attributed to Wipo and written by someone else. Wipo was an eminent clergyman

Sequences from 9th through 11th centuries typically follow the form A BB CC This sequence is about Jesus rising from the dead and the ancient calumny that Jews were responsible for his death Reflects the predilection of Frankish writers

Benart de Ventadorn: Can vei la lauzera mover (When I see the Lark Beating) (?CA. 1130 - CA. 1200)

* written in French
Canso: a strophic song about love
This canso has seven eight-line stanzas and the closing four-line envoi sung to the second half of the melody, emphasizing the melodic closure Song of courtly love
The poetry is metrical
Troubadour song
Language of the poem is in Occitan. This language was spoken in what is now southern France Recording features voice without accompaniment

Adam de la Halle: Le jeu de Robin er de Marion: Song - Robins m’aime (Robin Loves Me) The Play of Robin and Marion
(CA. 1240 - ?1288)

written in French
one voice - monophonic
Adam de la Halle was a trouveres
Robins m’aime is from a Musical Play
Song was written - CA. 1284
Monophonic rondeau in the form ABaabAB
The singer sings the refrain and verse, then is joined on the refrain by male voice and instruments (vielle, a bowed string instrument, and gittern, a plucked string instrument)

Walther von der Vogelweide: Palastinalied (Nu alrest lebe ich mir werde) (now for the first time i live worthily) (?CA. 1170 - ?CA. 1230)
English title of song - Palestine Song

* one voice (monophonic)
Written in - ?ca. 1228
written in German
Walther was a Minnesinger
Text describes seeing the Holy Land (it is not known whether Walther actually traveled there) Considered a crusade song
Type of song - Minnelied
Poem is in Middle High German and has 12 stanzas
Melody form - AAB - Scholars of German poetry call this AAB structure ‘bar form’ Vocal line is joined by a rebec (a bowed string instrument) and the lute playing sometimes in unison with the voice The instruments sometimes play in heterophony and sometimes in improvised polyphony. Instruments play before and between stanzas

starts out with instruments then single male voice comes in

Cantigas No. 159: Non sofre Santa Maria (holy mary does not allow) from Cantigas...
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