Properties of Sound:
1.Pitch- Frequency of vibrations
●Overtones (makes up pitches). They are responsible for our unique voiceprint. They are located above the fundamental. ●Everyone has a unique voice print
2.Timbre- Color and quality. A tool by which we identify different voices and instruments. Very subjective- differently interpreted and heard and described. Ex: Gloomy, dark, clear, bright, harsh, rough, delicate, wide, narrow. ●Every person in the world has his or her own timbre because of overtones. Oscilloscope shows you your voiceprint. 3.Dynamics- how loud or how soft. Volume in music.
●Pianissimo- (pp) very soft
●Piano- (p) soft
●Mezzo Piano- (mp) medium soft
●Mezzo Forte- (mf) medium loud
●Forte- (f) forte
●Fortissimo- (ff) very loud
●Crescendo- becoming louder
●Decrescendo/Diminuendo- becoming softer
Elements of Music
1.Melody- Meaningful succession of pitches; series of single tones that add up to a recognizable whole. Phrase- Sections that make up a melody, an idea.
Cadence- Points of rest
Range- Difference from lowest to highest pitch
2.Harmony- more than one pitch; usually supports melody
Chord- when 3 or more pitches are played at the same time
Arpeggio- A broken chord. One after the other.
Major/Minor- Major sounds happier, stable. Minor is depressing. Consonance- Stable, pleasant
Dissonance- Clash. Creates tension, which creates excitement 3.Texture- Weave of music; layers of music; melody/harmony
Monophonic- melody alone
Homophonic- melody and harmony
Polyphonic- multiple melodies at once
4.Dynamics- how loud or soft
5.Timbre- Color and quality.
6.Tempo- Speed. Basic pace of music.
●Largo- Very slow
●Andante- Walking pace
●Moderato; Allegretto- moderate
●Presto- very fast
●Pretissimo- as fast as possible
●Accelerando- Speeding up
●Ritardando- Slowing down
●Metronome- A device used to divide time into units. Ex: 60 beats/minute 7.Rhythm- meter. Sounds, pauses, length of sounds.
●Beat- The pulse of the music. Constantly recurring. Beat is a steady recurring pulse that divides music into equal units of time. It is a basic unit of time by which all notes are measured in. ●Rhythm refers to a particular arrangement of sounds and silences in a piece of music. It is an essential feature of a personality of a piece. We can recognize pieces based on rhythm only. ●Meter: Some beats are more stressed than others. Stress has to come regularly. Meter refers to the pattern of strong and weak beats. The downbeat is the strong beat. Pieces can be in triple meter, duple meter, or mixed meter. 8.Form/Structure
●Middle Ages (400-1450)
●Classical (1750- 1825)
●20th Century (1900-2000)
●Contemporary (2000- )
Instruments of the Orchestra
Strings, Woodwinds, Brass, Percussion, (keyboard)
●Timbre associated with the human voice. (warmth, emotion) ●Played with bow
●Long string-Low note
●Shorter string-higher pitch (more rapid vibrations)
●Unstopped string-open string
●Fingers pressed on the string makes it shorter, thus raising the pitch ●The wooden body vibrates and acts as a resonator
●Mute dampens the vibrations and softens the sound.
●Pizzicato- plucking the string
●Vibrato- slight wavering of the tone
●Concertmaster- leader of the stings, first violinist
●Harp- Strings are plucked. 47 strings, color coordinated. Seven pedals raise or lower the pitches ●Guitar
●Tones are produced by blowing across a reed, causing the air and reed to vibrate ●Covering the holes make the tube longer-lowers the pitch ●Most are made of metal (except recorders, made of plastic. Different materials create different sound.) ●No reed-Flute, Piccolo,...