Music Appreciation: a Guide

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Music Appreciation Study Sheet

Properties of Sound:
1.Pitch- Frequency of vibrations
Overtones (makes up pitches). They are responsible for our unique voiceprint. They are located above the fundamental. ●Everyone has a unique voice print
2.Timbre- Color and quality. A tool by which we identify different voices and instruments. Very subjective- differently interpreted and heard and described. Ex: Gloomy, dark, clear, bright, harsh, rough, delicate, wide, narrow. ●Every person in the world has his or her own timbre because of overtones. Oscilloscope shows you your voiceprint. 3.Dynamics- how loud or how soft. Volume in music.

Pianissimo- (pp) very soft
Piano- (p) soft
Mezzo Piano- (mp) medium soft
Mezzo Forte- (mf) medium loud
Forte- (f) forte
Fortissimo- (ff) very loud
Crescendo- becoming louder
Decrescendo/Diminuendo- becoming softer
4.Duration- Length

Elements of Music
1.Melody- Meaningful succession of pitches; series of single tones that add up to a recognizable whole. Phrase- Sections that make up a melody, an idea.
Cadence- Points of rest
Range- Difference from lowest to highest pitch
2.Harmony- more than one pitch; usually supports melody
Chord- when 3 or more pitches are played at the same time
Arpeggio- A broken chord. One after the other.
Major/Minor- Major sounds happier, stable. Minor is depressing. Consonance- Stable, pleasant
Dissonance- Clash. Creates tension, which creates excitement 3.Texture- Weave of music; layers of music; melody/harmony
Monophonic- melody alone
Homophonic- melody and harmony
Polyphonic- multiple melodies at once
4.Dynamics- how loud or soft
5.Timbre- Color and quality.
6.Tempo- Speed. Basic pace of music.
Largo- Very slow
Adagio- Slow
Andante- Walking pace
Moderato; Allegretto- moderate
Allegro- fast
Vivace- lively
Presto- very fast
Pretissimo- as fast as possible
Accelerando- Speeding up
Ritardando- Slowing down
Metronome- A device used to divide time into units. Ex: 60 beats/minute 7.Rhythm- meter. Sounds, pauses, length of sounds.
Beat- The pulse of the music. Constantly recurring. Beat is a steady recurring pulse that divides music into equal units of time. It is a basic unit of time by which all notes are measured in. ●Rhythm refers to a particular arrangement of sounds and silences in a piece of music. It is an essential feature of a personality of a piece. We can recognize pieces based on rhythm only. ●Meter: Some beats are more stressed than others. Stress has to come regularly. Meter refers to the pattern of strong and weak beats. The downbeat is the strong beat. Pieces can be in triple meter, duple meter, or mixed meter. 8.Form/Structure

Music Eras:
Middle Ages (400-1450)
Renaissance (1450-1600)
Baroque (1600-1750)
Classical (1750- 1825)
Romantic (1825-1900)
20th Century (1900-2000)
Contemporary (2000- )

Instruments of the Orchestra
Strings, Woodwinds, Brass, Percussion, (keyboard)

Sting Family
Timbre associated with the human voice. (warmth, emotion) ●Played with bow
Long string-Low note
Shorter string-higher pitch (more rapid vibrations)
Unstopped string-open string
Fingers pressed on the string makes it shorter, thus raising the pitch ●The wooden body vibrates and acts as a resonator
Mute dampens the vibrations and softens the sound.
Pizzicato- plucking the string
Vibrato- slight wavering of the tone
Concertmaster- leader of the stings, first violinist

Examples:
Violin
Viola
Cello (violoncello)
Double Bass
Harp- Strings are plucked. 47 strings, color coordinated. Seven pedals raise or lower the pitches ●Guitar

Woodwinds
Tones are produced by blowing across a reed, causing the air and reed to vibrate ●Covering the holes make the tube longer-lowers the pitch ●Most are made of metal (except recorders, made of plastic. Different materials create different sound.) ●No reed-Flute, Piccolo,...
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