Music 144 Study Guide

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Period: Block of time connected with music and chord progressions leading to a PAC; usually an antecedent phrase (ending with an HAC) and consequent phrase (ending with a PAC) once you get to the end of a period, the PAC offers a sense of completion

Periodicity: Difference between Baroque and Classical music (In Baroque compositions, the melody always continues and in Classical compositions, the melody will be a set number of measures and will have individual phrases following

Empfindsam Style: “Sensitive Style”; used by CPE Bach in his Keyboard Sonata; in this style, it is almost as if the phrases are one gesture after another (not really connected in any way) the composition is VERY intimate with ornamentations; the melody is fragmented and improvised, very emotional with embellishments everywhere Alberti Bass: A style of bass accompaniment used in piano sonatas (a style of arpeggiation, keeps the pieces moving) (used in Mozart’s piano sonatas!!) Opera Buffa: Comical opera, always in Italian, strictly sung

Intermezzo: A type of opera buffa (which has 2 acts) intermeshing with the 3 acts of the opera seria. It will go as follows: Act 1 Opera Buffa, Act 1 Opera Seria, Act 2 Opera Buffa, Act 2 Opera Seria (goes back and forth between 2, but meshes them together; Opera Seria story is usually different)

Opera Seria: Continuation of Baroque Neopolitan opera in terms of subject matter (always in Italian based on Greek Mythology or an ancient Roman story from history) makes use of Patter Arias; these operas were commissioned by aristocrats for weddings, coronations, etc (ANYTHING serious)

Patter Aria: A comical aria with fast pronunciation (Comical words) ALWAYS sung by a bass (in operas, basses were the comical characters and tenors were the heroic ones)

Libretto: Book with all the texts for an opera/oratorio (text was put to music and possibly translated into vernacular)

Opera Comique: Style of musical theater in France with sung text AND spoken text

Ballad Opera: performed in London; English incorporation of popular simple songs

Singspiel: VERY popular in Germany; style of opera comique made use of sung text and spoken text; usually comedies

Fuging Tune: Vernacular music (or folk music) with a bit of simple imitation, but mostly homophonic (written for a less sophisticated audience and less sophisticated performers)

Pianoforte: Piano that was created by Bartolomeo Cristofori; dominated the harpsichord because it could play loud AND soft (harpsichords only play very loud); eventually was called the piano

String Quartet: 4 movement Sonata for 2 violins, viola and cello Symphony: Multimovement sonata for a full orchestra (4 movements) Binary form: Heinrich Christoph Koch’s way of thinking of 1st movement sonata form (2 sections, exposition and development/recapitulation is one whole section)

1ST Movement Sonata Form: 19th century view was that it was in ternary form (3 sections!) 1. Exposition (the theme is first presented, in TONIC key that ENDS IN RELATED KEY) 2. Development (mid section, in the RELATED key (dominant for major, relative major for minor) 3. Recapitulation (TONIC KEY, ALWAYS has the themes of the beginning, but finds a way to transition into an ending in the TONIC KEY)

Minuet and Trio Form: Used in multimovement sonatas (used in symphonies, string qurtets, etc)

Minuet Form: The A section is repeated then the B section PLUS the A section is repeated A A BA BA A A BA BA (OR A B A IN A LARGER SENSE)
Trio Form: The X section is repeated then the Y section PLUS the X section X X YX YX X X YX YX (or X Y X IN A LARGER SENSE)

Scherzo: Literally a joke or pleasantness; Beethoven used the scherzo as a way of condensing the minuet and trio together; KEEPS THE SAME FORM OF MINUET AND TRIO

MULTIMOVEMENT SONATA: 1st movement is in 1st Movement Sonata Form, 2nd Movement is more lyrical and slow, 3rd movement is the minuet (scherzo)/trio, 4th movement is in 1st...
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