1.List the three roles of ATP in muscle contraction:
1._energizing the power stroke of the myosin cross bridge________________________ 2._disconnecting the myosin head from the binding site on actin at the conclusion of a power stroke_________________ 3._energizing the calcium ion pump; transporting calcium___________________
2.The potential energy in ATP is released when the terminal high-energy bond is broken by a process called _hydrolysis________________________.
Write the end products of this process: ATP (+ H2O) _ADP, inorganic phosphate, & energy or ADP + Pi + energy ________
3.Rebuilding ADP into ATP with a new source of energy is carried out by a process called __dehydration synthesis ______________________________.
Write the equation for this process: ___ADP + Pi + energy _____ ATP (+ H2O)
4.List the three processes used to synthesize additional ATP when ATP supplies are low: 1.__hydrolysis of creatine phosphate_______________________ 2.__glycolysis_______________________
3.__Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation _______________________
5.An immediate source of energy is _creatine phosphate ____ (CP), but the supplies are limited and rapidly depleted.
One molecule of CP produces _1___ ATP.
6.Glucose is a major source of energy for synthesizing ATP. List the two sources of glucose: 1._directly from the blood________________________
2._by hydrolysis of glycogen stored in the muscle cell__
7._glycolysis ___________ is the process that breaks down glucose.
Name two products of the breakdown of glucose:
2.__ 2 pyruvic acid_______________________
If oxygen is not available, pyruvic acid is converted to _lactic acid_________ acid, which is the end product of _anaerobic_____________ respiration.
8.If oxygen is available, the process is known as __aerobic___________ respiration.
Name two sources of oxygen: