- Fortepiano: early piano, named for its range of dynamic levels; it was smaller and less sonorous than the modern instrument. - Classical style: restrained, objective style of art. Classical refers to Western music characteristic of the period from 1750-1825. Composers:
- Mozart: Invested much of his music with a degree of emotion expression unusual for his time. Never allowed emotion to dominate his art. - Haydn: Wrote pleasant, good-natured music throughout his long life. Wrote masses, oratorios, and other religious compositions for church and for concert performance. - Beethoven: Wrote masses, oratorios, and other religious compositions for church and for concert performance.
- Form: organization and design of a composition, or of one movement within a composition. - Symphony: multimovement orchestral form.
- Sonata-Allegro: “first movement form”. The 3 sections: exposition, development, and recapitulation-form a binary design. - Exposition: first section of a fugue or of a sonata-allegro. - Development: 2nd section of the sonata-allegro; it moves through many keys. - Recapitulation: 3rd section of the sonata-allegro. Reviews the material of the exposition, presenting it in a new light. - Coda: Meaning, “tail”; a closing section.
- Minuet and Trio: ABA. Often the 3rd movement of a symphony, sonata, or string quartet. Consists of two minuets, the second (trio) lighter and more lyrical than the first. - Cadenza: extended passage for solo instrument; typical feature of a solo concerto. - Rondo: ABACA. Form in which various episodes alternate with the opening material. The tempo is usually fast, and the mood merry. - String Quartet: chamber ensemble consisting of two violins, a viola, and a cello. - Sonata (classical period): a multimovement composition for one or two solo instruments.
- Overture: introductory orchestral piece.
- Comic Opera (ope’ra comique, singspiel, opera buffa): Operas light in mood, modest in performing requirements, written in the vernacular language of the intended audience. - Requiem: mass for the dead.
- Ensemble Finale: final scene of a musical show in which several soloists simultaneously express, in different words and music, their individual points of view.
- Motive: short melodic phrase that may be effectively developed. - Art song: concert setting of a poem, usually by a well-known poet, to music. - Lieder: German art songs.
- Song cycle: sets of songs by one composer, often using texts all by the same poet. Composers:
- Schubert: earliest master of romantic art son. Composed 143 songs at 18. “Godfather” of the romantic period genre.
- Cyclic form: multimovement form unified by recurrence of the same or similar melodic material in two or more movements. - Absolute music: instrumental music having no tended association with a story, poem, idea or scene; non-program music. - Concert overture: one movement orchestral composition, often inspired by literature and dramatic in expression, yet generally subject to analysis according to classical principles of form. - Program symphony: symphony (composition for orchestra in several movements) related to a story, idea, or scene, in which each movement usually has a descriptive title. - Idée fixe: single melody used in several movements of a long work to represent a recurring idea. - Thematic transformation: variation of thematic or melodic material for programmatic purposes. Sometimes called metamorphosis. - Dies irae: Gregorian chant for the dead.
- Symphonic poem (tone poem): programmatic composition for orchestra in one movement, which may have a traditional form (such as sonata/rondo) or an original irregular form. Composers:
- Brahms: misplaced classicist. Poured the warmest Romantic emotional content into his classical forms. He based his music on models from the past. - Berlioz: his works were based on unrequited love. Used the...