Murrays List of Psychogenic Needs

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Murray's Needs

This is the list of 'psychogenic' needs identified in Explorations in Personality, edited by Henry A. Murray in 1938. They are divided into five groups. Ambition needs
Need| Definition|
Achievement| To accomplish difficult tasks, overcoming obstacles and achieving expertize. | Exhibition| To impress others through one's actions and words, even if what is said or done is shocking.| Recognition| To show achievements to others and gain recognition for these.|  

Materialistic needs
Need| Definition|
Acquisition| To acquire things.|
Retention| To keep things that have been acquired.|
Order| To make things clean, neat and tidy.|
Construction| To make and build things.|
Power needs
Need| Definition|
Abasement| To surrender and submit to others, accept blame and punishment. To enjoy pain and misfortune. | Aggression| To forcefully overcome an opponent, controlling, taking revenge or punishing them.| Autonomy| To break free from constraints, resisting coercion and dominating authority. To be irresponsible and independent.| Blame avoidance| To not be blamed for things done.|

Contrariance| To oppose the attempted persuasion of others.| Deference| To admire a superior person, praising them and yielding to them and following their rules.| Dominance| To control one's environment, controlling other people through command or subtle persuasion.| Harm avoidance| To escape or avoid pain, injury and death. | Infavoidance| To avoid being humiliated or embarrassed. |  

Status defense needs
Need| Definition|
Counteraction| To make up for failure by trying again, pridefully seeking to overcome obstacles. | Defendance| To defend oneself against attack or blame, hiding any failure of the self.| Infavoidance| To avoid being humiliated or embarrassed. |  

Affection needs
Need| Definition|
Affiliation| To be close and loyal to another person, pleasing them and winning their...
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