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UNIT 1 i
Management and the evolution of management thought

Unit 1
BBM 103/05

Principles and Practice
of Management

Management and
the Evolution of
Management
Thought

ii WAWASAN OPEN UNIVERSITY
BBM 103/05 Principles and Practice of Management

COURSE TEAM
Course Team Coordinator: Dr. Tung Lai Cheng
Content Adapter: Dr. Rajakrishnan a/l Ramasamy
Instructional Designer: Professor Dr. Ng Wai Kong
Academic Member: Dr. Tung Lai Cheng

COURSE COORDINATOR
Dr. Balakrishnan a/l Muniapan

EXTERNAL COURSE ASSESSOR
Professor Dr. Muhamad Jantan, Universiti Sains Malaysia

PRODUCTION
Editor: Mr. William Desmond De Zeeuw
In-house Editor: Mr. Khoo Chiew Keen
Graphic Designer: Ms. Audrey Yeong

Wawasan Open University is Malaysia’s first private not-for-profit tertiary institution dedicated to adult learners. It is funded by the Wawasan Education Foundation, a tax-exempt entity established by the Malaysian People’s Movement Party (Gerakan) and supported by the Yeap Chor Ee Charitable and Endowment Trusts, other charities, corporations, members of the public and occasional grants from the Government of Malaysia.

The course material development of the university is funded by Yeap Chor Ee Charitable and Endowment Trusts.

© 2008 Wawasan Open University
First Revision 2011, Second Revision 2014
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from WOU.

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(KPT/JPT/DFT/US/P01)
Wholly owned by Wawasan Open University Sdn. Bhd. (700364-W)

54, Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, 10050 Penang.
Tel: (604) 2180333 Fax: (604) 2279214
Email: enquiry@wou.edu.my
Website: www.wou.edu.my

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Published by Wawasan Open University 2008. This edition has been revised by Wawasan Open University from the course B 240 Principles and Practice of Management by The Open University of Hong Kong with the permission of the owner.

UNIT 1 iii
Management and the evolution of management thought

Contents
Unit 1 Management and the Evolution
of Management Thought
Course overview

1

Unit overview

3

Unit objectives

4

1.1 Who are managers?

5

What is management and what do managers do?
Defining management
Management functions
Management roles
Managerial skills
Managing systems
Managing in different and changing situations

6
7
8
11
13
15
17

1.2 Is the manager’s job universal?

21

1.3 Early developments in management thinking

25

Historical background of management thought

25

Classical management theories
The administrative management
The scientific management approach
The administrative management approach

27
27
28
31

Behavioural approaches
The human relations approach
The human resources approach

33
33
34

The quantitative approach

37

The open-systems view

38

The contingency approach

40

iv WAWASAN OPEN UNIVERSITY
BBM 103/05 Principles and Practice of Management

1.4 Contemporary management

45

Current trends and issues

45

Japanese challenge
Japanese management
Essential features of Japanese management
ideology
Essential features of Japanese management
practices

47
50
50

Total quality management (TQM)

56

The learning organisation

57

51

Summary of Unit 1

61

Unit practice exercise

63

Suggested answers to self-tests

67

Suggested answers to unit practice exercise

71

Terminology

73

References

75

UNIT 1 1
Management and the evolution of management thought

Course Overview

B

BM 103/05 Principles and Practice of Management is a 5-credit lower-level course within the Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) programme. It is a core course and must be taken by all students wishing to complete their BBA degree.

BBM 103/05 provides you...
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