•Intelligence: a socially constructed concept that differs from culture to culture. •One overall ability or many?
•Can it be measured or located by neuroscientists?
•Reify: to treat it as though it were a real object, not an abstract concept. •Most psychologists now define Intelligence: the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and adapt to new situations. 31-2:
•Factor analysis has been used to show that mental abilities tend to form clusters; people show similar levels of competence in all abilities. •Charles Spearman: (developer of factor analysis) named this general mental ability the ‘g’ factor. 31-3:
•Howard Gardner: proposed eight independent intelligences oLinguistic (word smarts)
oLogical-mathematical (number smarts)
oMusical (music smarts)
oSpatial (space smarts)
oBodily-kinesthetic (body smarts)
oIntrapersonal (self smarts)
oInterpersonal (people smarts)
oNatural (nature smarts)
•Robert Sternberg: proposed three different types of intelligence oAnalytical (academic problem solving)
•Four components of emotional intelligence
oAbility to perceive emotions; to recognize them in faces, music and stories oAbility to understand emotions; to predict them and how they change and blend oAbility to manage emotions; to know how to express them in varied situations oAbility to use emotions;
•Stretch it too far in regards to intelligence?
•Creativity: the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas •Correlates somewhat with intelligence test scores, but beyond a score of 120 the correlation dwindles •Also correlates with expertise, imaginative thinking skills, a venturesome personality, intrinsic motivation, and the support offered by a creative environment. •Different brain areas for convergent thinking: the type required for intelligence test solutions, and divergent thinking: the type required for multiple imaginative solutions 31-6: