Modernism Exam Study Guide

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Movement When Where
Artist
Key Characteristics
Modernist Topic
Pictorialism
Julia Margaret Cameron
Louis Daguerre
The use or creation of pictures or visual images
a movement or technique in photography emphasizing artificial often romanticized  Pictorial qualities
Used as representation of people and historical events

Machine aesthetic
Impressionism

1870 - 1890

France
Alfred Sisley
A theory or style of painting originating and developed in France during the 1870s, Characterized by concentration on the immediate visual impression produced by a scene The use of unmixed primary colours and small strokes to simulate actual reflected light.

Pointillism

1880 – 1890

France
Georges Seurat
Paintings made of small, distinct dots of pure paint.
Dots of unmixed colour are juxtaposed on a white ground so that from a distance they fuse in the viewer's eye into appropriate intermediate tones Also called divisionism.

Post Impressionism

1880 - 1905

France
Van Gogh
Henri Rousseau
A late 19th-century reaction to Impressionism,
Emphasizing on one hand the emotional aspect of painting and on the other a return to formal structure The first led to Expressionism; the second, to Cubism.

Art Nouveau

1890 - 1910

France
Alphonse Mucha
Jules Cheret
Henri Toulouse
Subtle light, feminine figures, fluent dresses, geometric details, colorful new shapes. Decorative art form, consumer mentality instead of necessity. A style of decoration and architecture of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, characterized particularly by the depiction of leaves and flowers in flowing, sinuous lines. Marry art with industry

Industrialization/
Machine aesthetic
Expressionism

1890 - 1934

Germany
Wassily Kandinsky,
Franz marc,
Sidney Nolan
Sought to express emotions rather than to represent external reality Characterized by the use of symbolism and of exaggeration and distortion Emphasized subjective expression of the artist's inner experiences.

Fauvism

1900 - 1920

France
Henri Matisse
Intense colour to describe light and space
Communication of artist’s emotional state
An early-20th-century movement in painting begun by a group of French artists and marked by the use of bold, often distorted forms and vivid colours.

Cubism

1907 - 1915

France
Pablo Picasso
Ignored traditional perspective, showing many views of an object at once Drew on other cultures, Africa in particular.
Non-objective
Characterized by the reduction and fragmentation of natural forms into abstract, often geometric structures usually rendered as a set of discrete planes

Futurism

1909 - 1914

Italy

Replace traditional aesthetic values with the characteristics of the machine age Form to the dynamism and speed of industrial technology.
Capture in painting the movement, force, and speed of modern industrial life by the simultaneous representation of successive aspects of forms in motion.

Machine Aesthetic
Orphism

1910 - 1913
Robert Delaunay
Pure lyrical abstraction
Expression and significance of sensation
Form and colour to communicate meaning

Der Blaue Reiter

1911 - 1914

Germany
Kandinsky
Franz Marc
Finding spiritual truths
Believed in changeability, new ideas and mixing spirit and art. Utopia
Suprematism

1913 - 1935

Russia
Kasimir Malevich
Geometric forms of abstract painting.
Non-representational forms of pure abstraction
A form of pure cubist art, launched in Russia in 1913, and based on the principle that paintings should be composed only of rectangles, circles, triangles, or crosses

Utopia/
machine aesthetic
Dada

1916 - 1922

Zurich

Marcel Duchamp
Hannah Hoch
Aimed to offend traditionalists
Illustrating absurdity through paintings of purposeless machines and collages of discarded materials Expressed their cynicism about conventional ideas of form and their rejection of traditional concepts of beauty Random chance,...
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