Modern Philosophy Notes/Study Guide

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The New Science
* Beginning to see the appearance of the individual of the self. New methods were revealing a completely secular universe to this new man and showing him how he could satisfy his new desires. * Science and scientific method

* Empirical and deductive
* Emphasis on empirical or deductive methods lead to radically different metaphysical and epistemological (what we can know/how we know that we know) theories and to different conceptions of the implications of scientific method for ethics & religion. * Drastic change in conception of authority between written word of God to that of nature and empirical facts * There are certain observations that can be made by looking at nature but my mind is necessary in order to draw conclusions from those things that I’m observing * physicians studied patients and record symptoms, diagnosis , and treatments for the first time * starting to document what they’re observing and prescribed treatments to see what worked and how long the treatment worked on others * dissections of the body increased

* examples of thinkers
* Leonardo da Vinci
* a rational structure exist and it’s reflective in the natural world in such a way that it can be got at only by somehow combining a painstaking observation with mathematics * God puts the structure there, we can observe it in the natural world

* William Gilbert (1544-1603)
* Showed the Earth is a material object among others, to demonstrate the simplicity of natural law * This may be the intro of the model, like in science.
* Scrupulous in describing everything he did in such a way that it would be possible for others to check his findings that’s another feature of the new science

* Francis Bacon 1561-1626
* The great instauration- totally reconstruction of the sciences, art, and all human knowledge * Guided by two basic assumptions
* Virtually everything that has so far passed for knowledge was error * Human mind is an adequate instrument for obtaining knowledge * Saw a purely deductive science was not a natural science. New science had to shift to the method of induction * Believed the mind is like a mirror, if clean it will reflect nature as it really is * Trouble is hypothesis don’t just leap into the looking glass of our mind but they actually guide our observations determining what may even show up to us (he didn’t see or chose not to admit this) * Bacon’s new method actually implied an altogether different conception of reality. It implied the real constitute entities of the universe are not natures or essences at all but events. This is an instance of the general truth that the way people believe they know things has bearing on what they thought they can know. * The method that I’m using is determining what I can know and not what I can know determining the method Claim against him: he didn’t seem to understand or was not willing to articulate that the method of observation is shaping the reality * Carprincus

-Heliocentric Universe
* Cepler
-Improves Bacon method by the framing of hypothesis and the methodization of data the confirmed or disconfirmed the hypothesis. * Galileo
-Telescope: confirms Corprincus theory.
- Clarifying what is in front of us, what is far becomes near.
- The church was not happy.

The New Science and New Philosophy
* The Reality that physic disclose
1. Physical reality consisted of matter in motion.
- Matter is the name they gave to what physics measured. Moves from one place to another. Its demintions, weight, and velocity is what physics measured. Matter conforms to simple mathematical laws. Claim: All that exists is matter in motion. Even thinking is material. * Hobbs

-Lived during the reformation.
-Believed that matter and motion is all there is.
-Anti-rationist: experience on one hand and reason on the other; distinguishes the both. Experience brings knowledge...
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