brief overview of art styles from the 1900 through to the 1970’s
IMPRESSIONISM •Impressionism began in 1874 in
France. •It took it’s name from Claude Monet’s “Impression at Sunrise” (1872). •It was a reaction to the precision of images created by the newly invented camera (1853). • Therefore, the artists were concerned with capturing the effects of light as it changed through the course of the day. •They began painting outdoors – called plen-air, and depicted the weather and atmospheric changes. •Also due to economic changes caused by the industrial revolution, they were concerned with depicting everyday life. Claude Monet “Impression at Sunrise” (1872)
•Modern art really begins after this as the Post-Impressionist artists moved even further away from naturalistic representation.
Victoire(1886 – 8)
Van GoghNight (
This period covers the 20 years which followed the last Impressionist exhibition in 1886. It is from the 3 dominant figures of this era that the mainstreams of twentieth century art can be traced. Paul Cezanne – evolved a new style of compositional unity through colour, tone and strong geometric volume. This led to CUBISM. Paul Gauguin – impressed by Japanese prints to develop a style that favoured strong use of colour, shape and line. This led to FAUVISM Vincent van Gogh – painted his emotional response to images of man and nature in broad sweeping brushstrokes with a brush loaded with paint. This led to EXPRESSIONISM. Other Post Impressionist painters were Georges Seurat and Paul Signac (POINTILLISM), Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri Rousseau and Pierre Bonnard.
Pablo Picasso – Les Demoiselles d’Avingnon.
A radical movement that first introduced abstract art forms. It began in 1907, with Picasso’s Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, where we can see the gradual transformation to abstraction, from left to right. Picasso was influenced by primitive art, especially African masks. The Cubists reorganised the geometrical elements of their subjects without regard for their normal relationships. This early phase was called analytical cubism. A later phase incorporated collaged elements like newspaper print, wallpaper, bus tickets etc into the artworks. This was called synthetic cubism. Other Cubist artists were Georges Braque, Juan Gris, Ferdinand Leger.
Began in 1905 with an exhibition of works by a group of artists the critics labelled Les Fauves – “the wild beasts”. Colour no longer described the subject, but was placed on the canvas for it’s pictorial value alone. Line and pattern were also important. The main proponent of Fauvism, was Henri Matisse, who carried it’s focus on colour and shape through to his own personal style until he died at age 90. The other Fauvists, Derain, Dufy and Vlaminck also went on to develop their own styles or join the Expressionists. Fauvism lasted only 3 years as a movement.
Henri Matisse – The Red Room
Dufy Derain -
Expressionism had it’s beginnings in 2 German movements – die Brucke and die Blaue Reiter – in pre- World War 1 (1905 -1914). It is characterised by a highly emotive use of colour and brushstrokes and a distortion of from. Die Brucke (meaning “the Bridge”) began in Dresden around 1905, by Ludwig Kirchner, Emile Nolde, Karl SchmidttRottluff and others. These artists often did woodcuts which influenced their painting style – distorted forms. Die Blaue Reiter (meaning “the Blue Rider”), was more concerned with the emotional effects of colour and often depicted animals, especially Franz Marc. Others in this group were Auguste Macke, Gabrielle Munter and Wassily Kandinsky.
Was also happening in pre-World War 1 ITALY. Founded...