Modals Activity

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Inglês: Gramática
Organizado por Natália Guerreiro em abril de 2007

Aluno(a):_____________________ Turma: Vetor ___

Connectors & Discourse Markers
Connectors, discourse markers, text or discourse organizers, conjunctions, linking words, transition signals… Como você vai ver nas questões de vestibular, os nomes variam, por motivos que não nos cabe discutir aqui. Porém, é importante saber que se trata dessas palavras ou expressões que ligam uma oração a outra, um período a outro, ou mesmo uma parte do texto a outra. E, no que ligam, estabelecem uma relação semântica entre as duas partes; em outras palavras, fazem uma ponte de significado entre os dois trechos. São fundamentais, portanto, para melhor compreensão do texto. Testemos sua intuição. Junte as palavras em negrito à relação semântica que introduzem. ( ) addition ( ) cause ( ) consequence ( ) contrast

A. This is one possible solution to the problem. However, there are others. B. If this project fails it will affect not only our department, but also the whole organization. C. We were unable to get funding and therefore had to abandon the project. D. Due to wet leaves on the line, this train will arrive an hour late. (Sentences from the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary)

O quadro abaixo lista quatro relações e palavras ou expressões que podem estabelecê-las. Obviamente, a lista não é exaustiva. Então, olho vivo! Ao encontrar outras expressões, adicione-as aqui. E sempre preste muita atenção no sentido da frase, pois a mesma expressão, com freqüência, tem mais de um sentido. and;... too; also; in addition (to); moreover; furthermore; besides; as well (as); what’s more; alongside; apart from not only … but also; both… and 1. This plant requires sun all day. Furthermore, it needs rich soil. 2. My brother goes to school full-time. Besides this, he works 20h a week. 3. Not only is she taking physics but she is also taking biology. 4. Neither the pedestrian nor the bicyclist saw the car approaching. 5. I don’t like bananas or apples. 6. No I don't work. In fact, I've never had a job. 7. You can take the pie with you. As a matter of fact, I wish you would because I’m on a diet. 8. The first part was easy; the second, however, took hours. 9. I know mountain climbing is dangerous. I’d like to try it nonetheless. 10.Even though she knew the answer, she did not respond. 11.He must be about sixty, whereas his wife looks about thirty. 12. Some people think that whales are fish. In fact, these animals are mammals. 13.I'm not sick; on the contrary, I'm in the peak of health. 14. He didn't call; rather/instead, he wrote her a letter 15.We can't go to Julia's party because we're going away that weekend. 16.She remained silent, for her heart was heavy. 17. Since we've got a few minutes to wait for the train, let's have a cup of coffee. 18. My knee started hurting so I stopped running. 19. I'd better write it down, otherwise I'll forget it. 20.She looked so beautiful that he could not take his eyes off her

Adição Addition

Negative addition Intensifying addition
(elaborating on what you said; supporting previous idea)

neither … nor; nor; or

in fact; as a matter of fact; actually; on top of that but; yet; however; in contrast; by contrast; on the other hand; though; even so; nevertheless; nonetheless; despite; in spite of; all the same although; though; even though; while; whereas; regardless of the fact that;

Contraste, oposição ou concessão Contrast, opposition or Concession

Rephrasing or correcting

on the contrary; in fact; rather; instead; at the same time

Causa ou Razão Cause or Reason

for; because; as; since; because of; due to; owing to; as a result of; in (the) light of; by reason of; in view of; for one thing; as long as so; therefore; as a result; consequently; thus; hence; accordingly otherwise (negative consequence) so … that

Conseqüência, Efeito ou Resultado Consequence, Effect or Result

(Sentences from Cambridge Advanced...
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