← The way a consumer feels about an attitude object
← Involves the person’s intentions to do something with regard to an attitude object
← The beliefs a consumer has about an attitude object
□ Hierarchy of Effects:
← A fixed sequence of steps that occur en route to an attitude
Theory of reasoned action
□ Intentions Versus Behavior
□ Social Pressure:
← Subjective Norm (SN)
■ Normative Belief (NB): Belief that others believe an action should or should not be taken
■ Motivation to Comply (MC): Degree to which consumers take into account anticipated reactions
□ Attitude Toward Buying:
← Attitude toward the act of buying (Aact):
How someone feels about buying due to the perceived consequences of a purchase
Theory of trying
□ The theory of trying states that the criterion of behavior is the reasoned action model that should be replaced with trying to reach a goal. It recognizes barriers that might arise. The theory introduces several new components:
□ 1) Past frequency.
□ 2) Recency.
□ 3) Beliefs.
□ 4) Evaluations of consequences.
□ 5) The process.
□ 6) Expectations of success and failure.
□ 7) Subjective norms toward trying.
1. Balance Theory- Considers how a person perceives relations among different attitude objects and how he alters his attitudes so that these remain consistent or balanced.This perspective involves relations (from the perceivers subjective point of view) among 3 elements, called triads. Each triad contains: 1- a person and his perceptions. 2- an attitude object 3- some other person or object. The theory specifies that we want relations among elements in the triad to be harmonious. If they are unbalanced this creates tension that we are motivated to reduce by changing our perceptions in order to restore balance.
Triad attitude structures
• Perception of attitude object
• Perception of other person/object
i. Perception can be positive or negative
Balanced/harmonious triad elements
Marketing Applications of Balance Theory
• Celebrity endorsements
2. Attitude- a lasting, general evaluation of people, objects, advertisements, or issues. Beliefs- cognitions about a specific attitude object.
Belief- cognitions about the specific attitude object. A belief measure assesses the extent to which the consumer perceives that a brand possesses a particular attribute
3. High involvement product- high capital value good that is purchased only after long and careful consideration such as a car. Low involvement product- product items that entail minimal effort and consideration on the part of the consumer prior to purchase since they do not have a substantial effect on the buyers lifestyle and hence are not a significant investment; also could be an item that is habitually purchased. According to the elaboration likelihood model(ELM) under conditons of high involvement, we take the central route to persuasion. Under the conditions of low involvement we take the peripheral route. The more closely marketers can tie a brand to an individual, the higher the involvement they will create.
The attitude toward the advertisement (Aad) is defined as a predisposition to respond in a favorable or unfavorable manner to a particular advertising stimulus during a particular exposure occasion. Determinates include:
• a) Attitude toward the advertiser.
• b) Evaluations of the ad execution itself.
• c) The mood evoked by the ad.
• d) The...