Jean Piaget: lived from 1896-1980. He was a biologist who grew up in Europe. That fact that he was an only child could be the reason that his theory emphasizes children as individuals who are active learners trying to solve problems and experiment. Piaget moved onto the study of understanding children’s development through observing them, talking and listening to children while the carried out activities and exercises he set out for them. Piaget’s main insight was the role of maturation which is them just simply growing up in their capacity to understanding the world which they are living. He saw that children cannot take certain tasks until they are fully matured enough to do so.
Piaget proposed that children’s thinking does not develop smoothly. Instead he saw that there are certain points at which their development takes off and moves into completely new areas and capabilities.
These transitions he saw taking place at around 18 months, 7 years old and or 11 years. Piaget saw that no matter how bright children are before these ages; children are not capable of understanding things in certain ways. This theory has always been used as basis for scheduling the school curriculum.
B.F. Skinner who lived from 1905- 1990 was a behavioral psychologist. He worked in the US. Skinner’s main theory was that reinforcement and punishment molds behavior. This means children are conditioned by their experiences. Skinner maintained that learning occurred as a result of the organism responding to, or operating on, its environment. He did a wide research with animals, mostly rats and pigeons, and invented the famous Skinner box, in which a rat learns to press a lever in order to obtain food Skinner again experimented with rats to show how negative reinforcement can also strengthen behaviour. Skinner placed the rat inside the box and sent electric current into the box, as the rat moved around the box it would knock the lever by accident and the...
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