Millenium Development Goals

Topics: Agriculture, Demography, Population Pages: 9 (2513 words) Published: February 23, 2013
REG NO :BIT -001-2934/2011
HRD 2102


The main objective of the Millennium Declaration was to define a common vision for development by 2015. With this endorsement, Kenya set a limited number of achievable goals to be attained by the year 2015 through achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). These goals are: 1) Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

2) Achieve universal primary education
3) Promote gender equality and empower women
4) Reduce Child Mortality
5) Improve Maternal Health
6) Combat HIV AND AIDS, Malaria and Other diseases
7) Ensure Environmental sustainability
8) Develop a Global Partnership for development

GOAL 1------Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
This goal had 3 targets in place:
Target A: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day. Indicators for Monitoring Progress: •
1) Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per day 2) Poverty gap ratio
3) Share of poorest quintile (one fifth ) in national consumption, where households are divided into quintiles according to their gross consumption Target B: Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people Indicators for Monitoring Progress:

1) Growth rate of GDP per person employed
2) Employment-to-population ratio
3) Proportion of employed people living below $1 (PPP) per day 4) Proportion of own account and contributing family workers in total employment Target 1.C: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger Indicators for Monitoring Progress:

1) Prevalence of underweight children under five years of age 2) Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption 2.4 Challenges in Achieving Goal 1
The country faces a number of challenges towards achievement of targets under Goal 1. These include: ■ Unemployment: High unemployment, especially among the youthful population, has put pressure on various sectors of the economy. This situation is aggravated by an education system that does not effectively produce skills that respond to the demands of the labour market. Rural to urban migration has also significantly contributed to unemployment in urban areas. Women form the most disadvantaged group among the unemployed. ■ HIv and AIds: The high rate of HIV/AIDS has impacted negatively on agricultural production since the majority of infected persons constitute the most productive segment of the population. ■ Unfavorable Land Tenure systems: Lack of security of land tenure has often resulted in low utilization of agricultural land. In particular, the processes of implementation of land adjudication, the settlement of land disputes, and repossessing of irregularly acquired land are slow. ■ Poor Rural Infrastructure: Poor rural roads and communication networks have often led to high transport costs for agricultural products to markets as well as farm inputs. In addition, electricity is either lacking or too expensive leading to reduced investments in other related services. ■ Weak Coordination of Major stakeholders: An integrated development strategy for the agricultural sector through harmonized programs in infrastructure, water, lands and settlement, and electricity is currently lacking. The result has been ineffectiveness in the realization of the growth targets set for the sector. ■ Unfavorable Weather Conditions: Most crop and livestock farming in Kenya is rain-fed, and therefore prone to weather fluctuations. Droughts and floods have increased significantly in recent years. This is...
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