Midterm Study Guide

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1. Definition of chemistry
a. The study of the composition of matter
2. Difference between a theory and a law
b. Theory- is as good as the information you have at that moment and it cannot be proven c. Law- is always true and can never be proven wrong
3. Physical vs. Chemical properties
d. Physical Properties- observed and measured without changing the substance e. Chemical Properties- observed and measured while changing the substance 4. Chemical vs. Physical changes

f. Chemical Change- changing the composition of a substance g. Physical Change- changing the outside or the appearance of a substance 5. Putting numbers into and out of scientific notation

6. Difference between precision and accuracy

7. Be able to perform metric conversions
K| 10^3|
d| mL = cm^3
mL = cm^3
10^-1|
c| 10^-2|
m| 10^-3|
μ| 10^-6|
N| 10^-9|
M| 10^6|

8. Be able to find density
M
M

V
V
D
D

9. Know Dalton's Atomic Theory
a. All elements are composed of tiny indivisible particles called atoms (FALSE) b. Atoms of the same element are identical. Atoms of any one element are different from those of any other element (FALSE) c. Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole number ratios to form chemical compounds (TRUE) d. In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged- but never changed into atoms of another element (TRUE) 10. Models of the atom

a. Plum Pudding- electrons float around in a positive charged “pudding” b. Nuclear Model- atom is mostly empty space. All the positive charge and almost all the mass is concentrated in a small area in the center, called the nucleus. Nucleus is composed of protons and neutrons c. Planetary- electrons orbit the nucleus like planets

d. Quantum-atom is found inside a blurry electron cloud 11. Scientists – Thomson, Rutherford, Millikan, etc.
Democritus- He believed that atoms were tiny,...
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