Midterm Study Guide

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Chapter 11 Blood
Chapter 12 The Circulatory System
Chapter 12 The Lymphatic System and Immunity
Chapter 14 The Respiratory System

Daudi K. Langat, PhD
January 2011

Chapter 11

Blood plasma
• Definition—blood minus its cells
• Composition—water containing many dissolved substances (e.g., foods, salts, and hormones) • Amount of blood—varies with size and sex; 4 to 6 L about average; about 7% to 9% of body weight

Formed elements
• RBCs (erythrocytes)
• WBCs (leukocytes)
o Granular leukocytes—neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils o Nongranular leukocytes—lymphocytes and monocytes
o Platelets, or thrombocytes
• RBCs—4.5 to 5 million per mm3 of blood
o WBCs—5000 to 10,000 per mm3 of blood
o Platelets—300,000 per mm3 of blood
• red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) forms all blood cells except some lymphocytes and monocytes, which are formed by lymphatic tissue in the lymph nodes, thymus, and spleen

o Structure—disk-shaped, without nuclei
o Functions—transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
o Anemia—inability of blood to carry adequate oxygen to tissues; caused, for example, by: * Inadequate RBC numbers
* Deficiency of hemoglobin
* Pernicious anemia—deficiency of vitamin B12 and lack of Intrinsic Factor * Polycythemia—abnormally high RBC count and increased blood viscosity * Definitions of Sickle Cell Anemia and Aplastic Anemia

* Hematocrit test—medical test in which a centrifuge is used to separate whole blood into formed elements and liquid fraction. RBC’s are located at the bottom of the tube * Buffy coat is WBC and platelet fraction

* Normal RBC level is about 45%
* Erroneous test result can be caused by dehydration

WBCs (leukocytes)
• General function—defense
• WBC count
* Differential WBC count reveals proportions of each type of WBC * Leukopenia—abnormally low WBC count
* Leukocytosis—abnormally high WBC count
* Neutrophils and monocytes carry out phagocytosis
* Lymphocytes produce antibodies (B-lymphocytes) or directly attack foreign cells (T-lymphocytes) * Eosinophils protect against parasitic irritants that cause allergies * Basophils produce heparin, which inhibits clotting

WBC disorders
• Leukemia—cancer
* Elevated WBC count
* Cells do not function properly
* Type identified by how quickly symptoms appear and cell type involved * Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)
* Acute myeloid leukemia (AML)
* Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
* Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)

Platelets and blood clotting (Figure 11-6)
• Platelets play an essential role in blood clotting
• Blot clot formation-dependent on Vitamin K
* Clotting factors released at the injury site produce prothrombin activator * Thrombocytes are involved in blood clotting
* Prothrombin activator and calcium convert prothrombin to thrombin * Thrombin triggers formation of fibrin, which traps RBCs to form a clot

ABO system (Figure 11-7)
• Antigen—substance that can activate immune system
• Antibody—substance made by body in response to stimulation by an antigen Blood types
* Type A blood—type A self-antigens in RBCs; anti-B type antibodies in plasma * Type B blood—type B self-antigens in RBCs; anti-A type antibodies in plasma * Type AB blood—type A and type B self-antigens in RBCs; no anti-A or anti-B antibodies in plasma * Type O blood—no type A or type B self-antigens in RBCs;...
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