Midterm review

Topics: Science, Sociology, Social sciences Pages: 15 (4944 words) Published: October 12, 2014
Social Science 1A – Principles in the Social Sciences
Fall 2013

Study Guide Exam I

Exam 1 is scheduled for Monday October 28, 2013 at 9:00am and will cover chapters 1, 3, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 19, 21, 49, lecture material, films and handouts.

Please bring a red Scantron form: F-288-Par-L

From the lectures, please know the following:

What is the purpose of the Social Science 1A course?
What is the definition of social science?
What are the various social sciences?

What are the different ways of obtaining knowledge and answering questions? We viewed a short film on the Columbia Accident Investigation. We will have one or two questions regarding the actions of the NASA that hindered the accident investigation.

Who is Francis Bacon?
What are Bacon’s doctrines of empiricism and induction?
How does induction work as a means to discover empirical laws? Why did Bacon criticize the use of hypotheses in science?
What did Bacon mean by “knowledge is power?”
What is the practical purpose of the social sciences for Bacon? Know the meaning of the four Idols of the Mind that interfere with the search for correct knowledge according to Bacon.

Why did Rene Descartes support the use of theory in science? What analogy did Descartes use to indicate the importance of theory?

Auguste Comte is the originator of positivism for the social sciences. What is this doctrine? According to Comte, societies pass through three stages of development. What are these stages? What did Comte mean by the “religion of humanity”? Who should be the members of this religion? What did it cost Comte for promoting the religion of humanity? Comte arranged the natural and social sciences into a hierarchy. What is this hierarchy? What is the rationale for Comte’s hierarchy?

What analogy did Isaac Newton use to describe the world?
How have the natural sciences aided the development of the social sciences?

Today, is it possible to put the natural sciences into a logical hierarchy? If so, what is this hierarchy?
Is it possible to put the social sciences into a logical hierarchy? If not, why not?
Compared to the natural sciences, is the subject matter of the social sciences static or dynamic? What does this distinction mean?

What is the difference between “explanation” and “understanding” in science? Do the social sciences use both principles?

Can the LaMarckian view of evolution help explain any phenomenon in the social sciences? What is a meme and what is the function of a meme?

In lecture, we reviewed how Darwin’s evolutionary theory was politicized by biologists. In this regard, what did many leading Darwinists advocate in Germany in the late 19th and early 20th centuries? What do the movements of infanticide, eugenics and euthanasia represent? Who was Ernst Haeckel?

How did the views of Haeckel and other challenge the view that human life was to be protected and valued? How did the leading Darwinists view religion?
What is meant by the phrase “making the unequal equal”?
What is meant by the phrase “the individual is nothing; the species is everything”?

The scientific method of obtaining knowledge has been influenced by logical positivism, operationism, pragmatism. Know the meaning of these three terms applied to the conduct of science, especially social science.

What are the three characteristics of a scientific law?
How do scientific laws differ in the social sciences from the natural sciences?

In lecture, we reviewed the “research wheel”.
Please know the characteristics of this wheel.

Know the meanings of the following types of research studies – descriptive research, relational research and experimental research.

What are the necessary stages in planning an experiment?
Know the major research methods used in the social sciences reviewed in lecture and the readings.

What are the ethical rules for social science research?
What experiments, cited in lecture, started the interest...
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