Midterm Outline

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Outlined Notes 2011
Chapter 1

Sex – designated based on biology, naturally born body parts
Biological, based on chromosomes and anatomy, influenced in utero by progesterone levels Gender – socially constructed and expressed, it is not stable or innate
Can change based on: self, culture, in relation to others gender Transgender – have the physical characteristics of one sex buy identify internally strongly as the other sex Intersexed – people who have biological qualities of both sexes – hermaphrodites – based on pre and post birth hormonal influences, biology influences how we develop but does not determine how we behave or our personality or how we treat differences Transsexual – a person who had a surgery and/or hormonal treatments to make the body match more closely to the sex they identify with

Gender development – defined by society and expressed by individuals as they interact with other in the media and their society – learned and dynamic, it’s a social and symbolic construct that varies across cultures, over time within a given culture, over the course of an individual’s life span, and in relation to the other gender.

Chromosomes – XX: Female XY: Male

Patriarchy – ideology, structures, and practices created by men

Androgyny – these individuals embody qualities that we consider both feminine and masculine

Chapter 2

Biological theories of gender – maintain that biological characteristics of the sexes are the basis of gender differences
Survival of the fittest – sociobiology
Three primary influences
Chromosomes – several genes that control intelligence and social skills are located only in the X chromosomes Hormones – sex hormones affect development of the brain and body Brain specializations – differences in the formation of the brain that would give one sex an advantage over the other: men’s left loves generally are better for linear thinking, sequential information, spatial skills and abstract, analytical reasoning – women’s right lobes are better at imagination and artistic activity and holistic, intuitive thinking

Interpersonal theories of gender
Psychodynamic theory – emphasized interpersonal relationships within the family that affects a child’s sense of identity Relationships, especially early ones, are central to development of human personality and gender identity as children internalize in a more passive way. Mothers generally encourage more and earlier independence with their sons and talk with them less about emotional or relational issues. Psychological theory – stresses the learning and role modeling between children and a variety of other people including parents Emphasized the power of others’ communication to teach lessons about gender and to provide models of masculinity and femininity Social Learning Theory – individuals learn to be masculine or feminine through imitation, observation, experimentation, and responses from others – likely to develop patterns that others approve – views children as relatively passive Cognitive Development Theory - Assumes that children play active roles in developing their own identities using others to define themselves; motivated by an internal desire to be competent - children go through several stages in developing gender identities Gender constancy - the understanding that one is male or female and that this Does not change - same sex models become very important and as they grow children will look for role models (magazines, TV, blogs, etc.)

Cultural theories of gender
Anthropology – shows that cultures profoundly shape gender Symbolic Interactionism Theory - key role of communication in socializing new members into the understandings and values of a given culture: parents, peers, teachers tell children who they are. Gender roles are both external and assigned and value-defined by culture

Critical theories of gender
Standpoint Theory - Offers insights into how a person’s social location with a culture shapes...
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