Miderm Sheet

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← Muon
← Is created when a neutrino collides and combines with an H2O proton (weak force)

← Creates blue light

← High energy; travels faster than the speed of light (in water)

← Neutrino
← Type of particle: Lepton (like electrons and muons)

← Most abundant particle in the universe

▪ 1016 neutrinos are passing through your body at any point in time

← Theoretically discovered by Wolfgang Pauli (1930); actually discovered in 1955

← Produced during nuclear reaction or changes

← At least 6 different “kinds” (3 matter; 3 anti-matter)

← Very weakly interact with matter

← Modern Atomic Theory (John Dalton, 1800)
← Cells: “individual building blocks of matter”

← Cells: “smallest unit of an element which best represents the physical and chemical properties of that element”

← Element: “matter in which the fundamental building blocks are atoms”

▪ “Carefully” arranged on Periodic Table, represented by symbols (eg 11Na)

← Chemistry: “the science of the composition and structure of materials, their properties, and their chemical changes”

← Elements
← 4 classes: Nobles Gases, Metals, Metalloids, Nonmetals

← Alkali Metals (IA)

← Alkaline Earth Metals (IIA)

← Transition Metals (B)

← Halogens (VIIA)

← Electron
← Discovered by J. J. Thomson 1897 (also discovered charge to mass ratio (1.76*10^8 C/g))

▪ Cathode ray (with high voltage source) through Anode and magnetic field onto fluorescent screen, gave off alpha rays and X-rays (discovered by W. Röentgen (1896) by “accident”)

← A fundamental particle (lepton)

← Fermion: it has a spin (±½)

← Give off β when decays

← Milliken’s oil drop experiment helped figure out charge(1.6*10^-19) and mass(9.09*10^-28 g) of electron

← Atomic Structure Models
← J. J. Thomson Model (1905)

← Rutherford Model (1911)

▪ Positive charge in nucleus, negative charge away

▪ Proved positive nucleus through Gold Foil experiment

▪ 24He++ = α

▪ e- = -10e = β-

▪ e+ = +10e = β+ ( Antimatter

← Bohr Model (1913)

▪ Electrons orbit nucleus in limited number of orbitals

← Atomic Number ~ 82208Pb

← Identifies the element and is either the number of protons in the nucleus of the atom or the total number of electrons surrounding the nucleus

← Mass Number/Atomic Mass~ 82208Pb

← The sum of all the neutrons and protons in the nucleus of the atom:mass of specific isotope

← Atomic Weight ~ K1939.10

← Average mass of all the isotopes of that element , measured with atomic mass units (amu)

← Isotopes: atoms having same number of protons9 but a different number mass number because of a different number of electrons

← Atoms

▪ Electrons = almost 0 amu

▪ Protons = 1 amu

▪ Neutrons = 1 amu

▪ Quarks (↑↓) and Gluons

← Periodic property

▪ Atomic radius

• Decreases to the right

• Increases down

← Amu = 1/12 * 612C atom

▪ # (atoms or Molecules) * # amu/(atom or molecule)*1g/6.022x1023 amus = mass in grams

← Mole: the quantity of something that contains 6.022x1023 (NA) units of that something

← Electronegativity (Ē)

← “the relative tendency of an atom forming a chemical bond to pull electrons toward itself” 0-4

← Fr has lowest (.7), F has highest (3.98).

← Higher ^> on table

← Metals have relatively low electronegativity

▪ Metal atoms tend to lose electrons by a process called oxidation

▪ Any substance that undergoes oxidation is called a reducing agent

▪ Some metals have multiple Oxidation Numbers

• Cu ( Cu+1 or Cu+2

• Fe ( Fe +2 or Fe +3

← Nonmetals have relatively high electronegativity

▪ Nonmetallic elements tend to gain electrons (process called Reduction)

• Reduction:4Fe + 3O2 ( 2Fe2+3O3-2

← Valence Electrons

← Cation: small, positive ions

← Anion: large, negative ions

← Lewis Dot Structure:

← Chemical Bonds

← “an [electrical] force of attraction between separate atoms, ions, or molecules”

← 3 strong classes...
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