Microbiology Study Guide Chpt 1-6

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Microbiology Study Guide Chapters 1-6
Chapter 1 Main Themes of Microbiology
Microorganisms
Most are not Pathogens
Prokaryotic-no nucleus or organelles
Very simplistic—like bacteria
Eukaryotic-has nucleus and organelles like mitochondria
Includes fungus, and animals
Acellular-not even a complete cell
Includes viruses and prions like those that cause Mad Cow disease
Six main types of microorganisms
Bacterium (prokaryotic)
Fungus (eukaryotic)
Algae (eukaryotic)
Virus (acellular)
Protozoan (eukaryotic)
Helminth (eukaryotic)
Most common infectious diseases worldwide
Respiratory #1
AIDS #2
Diarrheal #3
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Fashioned together a primitive microscope—he was the first to observe microorganisms
Scientific method-an experimental system that answered questions objectively
Hypothesis- tentative explanation to account for what has been observed or measured; predicts specific explanations that may or may not be borne out by testing; best written as a statement
Experimentation-outlines particular events predicted by hypothesis, then sets up experiments to test for the events
Results-support or refute hypothesis (you never prove anything), some part of hypothesis may be discarded or modified to fit results
Conclusion or theory-repeated investigation of results
History of Microbiology
Spores and Sterilization
Some microbes in dust and air were resistant to high heat—later identified as spores
The term “sterile” was introduced which meant completely eliminating all life forms from objects and materials
Spontaneous generation
Early belief that some forms of life could arise from vital forces present in nonliving or decomposing matter (Ex. Flies from manure, etc)
Louis Pasteur-showed microbes caused fermentation and spoilage, and disproved spontaneous generation by use of swan neck flasks in his experiments
Aseptic technique
Joseph Lister (think listerene)-introduced aseptic technique in order to reduce microbes in a medical setting and prevent wound infections
Introduced using disinfectant on hands prior to surgery
Germ theory of disease
Many diseases are caused by the growth of microbes in the body and not by sins, bad character, or poverty
Koch’s Postulates-formed by Robert Koch which verified the Germ Theory; still used today and links microbes with specific diseases
Microbes present in samples of diseased animals
Grow organism in pure culture
Inject healthy animal with cultured cells
Animal develops same disease
Taxonomy-system for organizing, classifying & naming living things
Levels of classification-Do kings play chess or find games silly?
Domain-largest; there are three
Bacteria-prokaryotic, true bacteria, has peptidoglycan cell wall
Archaea-prokaryotic, odd bacteria that live in extreme environments, high salt, heat, etc.
Eukarya-eukaryotic, has nucleus and organelles
Kingdom
Phylum or Division
Class
Order
Family
Genus-Bacillus, always capitalized, always italicized or underlined
Species-most specific; subtilis, always lowercase, always italicized or underlined Chapter 2 Chemistry
Atoms-What are subatomic particles?
Proton-positively charged; in nucleus
Neutron-neutrally charged; in nucleus
Electron-negatively charged; in outer shell; electron shell=electron cloud
Atomic number=no. of protons
Atomic Mass number/Mass number=number of protons and neutrons
Atomic Mass=mass of subatomic particles at rest
Elements & Stuff
Element-varied subatomic particles (atomic number and mass) make-up specific elements as they come together; very pure; elements are important for structure and function of the cell
Molecule-combination of 2 or more elements (Ex. H2) held together by chemical bonds (covalent)
Inorganic-carbon OR hydrogen is present (Ex. CO2, H2)
Organic- carbon AND hydrogen is present (Ex. CH3)
Compound-combination of 2 or more different elements (Ex. H2O); chemically combined...
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