Microbiology Notes

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Chapter 1. Microbiology – Diversity of Organisms
Microorganisms- too small to be seen with the unaided eye
“germ”- rapidly growing cell

Microbes in our lives
Pathogenic- disease causing
Decompose organic waste
Producers in ecosystem (photosynthesis)
Produce industrial chemicals such as ethanol and acetone
Produce fermented foods ( vinegar, cheese, bread)
Produce products used in manufacturing (cellulose) and treatment (insulin) Designer Jeans: Made by Microbes?
Stone washing- Tricoderma
Cotton- Gluconactobacter
Debleaching- mushroom peroxidase
Indigo- e. coli
Plastic- bacterical polyhydroxyalkanoate
Knowledge of Microorganisms (pretty recent)
Allows humans to: prevent food spoilage and prevent disease occurance Led to aseptic techniques to prevent contamination in medicine and in microbiology labs Naming and classifying
Linnaeus established system of scientific nomenclature (binomial nomenclature) Each organism has two names: genus and specific epithet
Are italicized or underlined
Everything is “Latinized”
Genus is capitalized
Species is lowercased
May be descriptive or honor a scientist
Escherichia coli
Honors discoverer Theodor Escherich
Describes bacteriums habitat- large intestine or colon
Staphylococcus areus
Describes the clustered (staphylo) spherical (cocci) cells
Describes the gold-colored (areus) colonies

Scientific Names
After the first use the scientific names may be abbreviated with the specific epithet Escheria coli and Staphylococcus areus found in human body E. coli is found in the intestine while S. areus is found in the skin Types of Microorganisms

Bacteria
Archaea
Fungi
Protazoa
Algae
Viruses
Multicellular animal parasites
Bacteria
Prokaryote (before true nucleus)
Peptidoglycan cell walls
Binary fission
For energy use organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals or photosynthesis Many “swim”
Flagella
Archaea
Prokaryotic
Lack peptidoglycan
Live in extreme environments
Include
Methanogens (found where there is no oxygen)
Extreme halophiles (salt loving)
Extreme thermophiles (found in the deep sea vents in ocean)
Not known to cause disease
Fungi
Eukaryotes (true nucleus)
Chitin cell walls
Use organic chemicals for energy (absorb)
Molds and mushrooms are multicellular consisting of masses of mycelia, which are composed of filaments called hyphae Yeasts are unicellular
Reproduce sexually or asexually

Protozoa
Eukaryotes
Cellulose cell walls
use photosynthesis for energy
produce molecular oxygen and organic compounds
unicellular or multicellular
some can be parasitic
Viruses
Acellular
Consist of DNA or RNA core (never both)
Core surrounded by a protein coat
Coat may be enclosed in a lipid envelope (waxy material)
Replicate only when they are in a living host cell
Considered inert when outside host cell, and a parasite when in a host cell Multicellular animal parasites
Eukaryotes
Multicellular animals
Parasitic flatworms and roundworms are called helminthes
Microscopic stages in life cycles
Classification of microorganisms
Animal kingdom vs. Plant kingdom (17th cent)
3 domains (Woese in 1978 cell organization)
Bacteria
Archaea
Eukarya
Protists (most versatile)
Fungi
Plants
Animals

Chapter 1 lecture day 2
Brief history of microbiology
Ancestors of bacteria were first life on earth
Ex. Fossils, ancient disease (found in mummies), and acts of god First microbes were observed in 1763
First Observations
1665- Robert Hooke reported that living things were composed of little boxes or cells 1858- Rudolf Virchow cells arise from preexisting cells
Cell theory- all living things composed of cells and come from preexisting cells 1673-1723 Anton von Leeuwenhoek described live microorganisms Debate over Spontaneous Generation
Spontaneous generation – living organisms arise from nonliving matter “vital force” forms life Biogenesis living organisms arise from preexisting life
Evidence pros and cons
1688- Francesco Redi...
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