Microbiology First Exam Study Notes

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Microbiology!

1) Groups of Organisms (7):
Eukaryote: TRUE nucleus
1. Fungi

4. Bacteria

2. Algae

5. Rickettsia

3. Protozoa

!

Prokaryote: NO Nucleus Ribosome is the only Organelle

6. Mycoplasma

(7. Viruses: No cell structure, ARE NOT CELLS)

Microorganisms are:
!
UBIQUITOUS!
!
HARMLESS IN THEIR NORMAL HABITAT
!
OPPORTUNISTIC (If they leave their normal habitat and get into us) 2) Roles of Microorganisms:

(Bacteria and Fungi are “Semi-Good”)

- digestion
- conserve water in GI tract
- produce Vit K (and some B vitamins)
- normal microbiota play a protective role in gut
- degrade organic material into inorganic material (sewage, outhouses, cess pools, septic tanks)
- Aid crop development because they “Fix” Nitrogen
- Pesticides: protect crops, i.e., kill larvae of gypsy moths - Food
- sauerkraut
- dairy: yogurt, kefir, cheese
- baking industry: yeast and fermentation
- Alcohol
- beer
- wine
- hard liquor
- Pharmaceuticals
- antibiotics
- Curing Leather
- Curing Tobacco

Microbiology!

3. History of the Micro Men
Date Microbiologist
1590

Known for

First to use the word “CELL”

Van
Leeuwenhoek

Used a variety of magnifying lenses 50-300X
Described “Animalcules” (cork, algae, yeast, saliva, etc.)

Von Helmont

“ORIGIN of LIFE” = Life from Non Life, Spontaneous
Generation or Theory of ABIOGENESIS; Thought he cld
make life from non-life. Used dirty cloth and old food →
days → maggots

Redi

Abiogenesis occurred thru the air, Experimented w/
decaying meat, some covered and uncovered.

Jablot

No Microorganisms if boiled; Created a liquid medium
from hay and water. Some open, covered and/or boiled

Needham

Discovered spores without knowing it; Discovered all
bacteria have an active life form; Found didn’t boil long
enough

Spallanzani

Boiled longer → killed off spores; Reconfirmed air is a
method of transport for microorganisms

Schroder &
Van Dusch

1710

Invented compound microscope, 2 lenses

Hooke
1674

Janssen

Aseptic techniques: used Cotton plugs on tubes to
prevent microorganisms from entering

1860’s Louis Pasteur

Tyndall
mid
Lister
1800’s

Discovered 1st anaerobes, Primitive Germ Theory:
“Germs Cause Disease.” Saved wine & beer industry,
Low heat application: 63ᵒ C for 15 minutes, no boiling,
Pasteurization (milk, apple juice)
Tyndallization: intermittent sterilization. Repeated
heating and cooling, some things cannot be boiled 63-68ᵒ
Used Carbolic Acid (phenol) to disinfect surgical
equipment and sprayed weak carbolic acid around the
room. Infection rate decreased.

Iggy Semelweiss If doctors wash their hands ↓infection and ↓death

Microbiology!

Date

Microbiologist
Koch
(Connected an
organism to a
disease)



✻ Rivers

1910

Known for
Devised postulates:
1. Specific organisms → cause specific diseases
2. It’s possible to get an organism into pure culture to study 3. Recreate the same disease w/ that microorganism
4. Can recover original microorganism from another source
Experimental Method
1. Observation: “I think” statement
2. Experiments to test hypothesis. Eliminate as many
variable as possible, control variables
3. Results → analyze
4. Theory → “I know” statement
1st person to use an agent systemically to treat a disease,
i.e., arsenic to cure syphilis

Salk & Sabin

Created 1st Polio vaccine

Jenner
1929

Ehrlich

“Vaccinated” to small pox with cow pox

Flemming

Found penicillin

Watson & Crick Described DNA
1968

Christian
Barnard

Life Forms

First heart transplant

Metabolic State

Non Metabolizing

Bacteria

vegetative

endospore
freed endospore

Fungi

aerial mycelium generate exospores
vegetative mycelium (below the surface)

exospores: sexual spores
and asexual spores

Protozoa

Trophozoite (24 hours) Needy, need to
maintain metabolism for it to stay alive

Cyst (3-4 days)

(not a means of...
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