Microbiology Exam Notes

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MICROBIOLOGY STUDY QUESTI0NS - EXAM 1
1.Briefly discuss the theory of spontaneous generation. What scientific evidence was presented to disprove the theory? Spontaneous generation- theory (until second half of 19th century) that some forms of life can arise spontaneously from nonliving matter, i.e. maggots from corpses Redi (1668)- demonstrated maggots do not arise from decaying meat by filling two jars with decaying meat (one sealed, one unsealed). Unsealed jar developed larvae and sealed did not. Spallanzi (1765)-nutrient fluids heated after being sealed in a flask do not develop microbial growth *Pasteur (1861)-microorganisms present in air and can contaminate sterile solutions but air itself cannot produce microbes. He boiled beef broth in flasks and left some uncovered (developed microbes) and some he covered after boiling (no microbes). Then boiled broth in S-shaped curve of the neck of the flask (allowing air to pass through but no microbes); no growth 2.Describe the contributions of the following scientists:

Louis Pasteur
Robert Koch
Joseph Lister
Edward Jenner
Alexander Fleming
Iwanowski & Stanley
Avery,Macleod & McCarthy
Watson & Crick
Jacob & Monod
3.What are Koch's postulates? Why are they important and how are they applied? 4.Describe the distinguishing features of the following, groups of microorganisms: algae, bacteria, fungi, protozoans, viruses, and microscopic stages of the multicellular parasites. 5.What are the basic differences between the four types of light microscopes (brightfield, darkfield, phase contrast and fluorescent)? What are their applications? 6.How do electron microscopes differ from the light microscopes? What are their advantages and disadvantages? 7.*Define the following terms: focal point, total magnification, resolution, refractive index, parfocal. 8.Identify the parts of the light compound microscope. What is the function of each? 9.What is a simple stain? Give one example and...
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