BIO 113 Spring 2012 - Dr. MJ Bernot
Study Guide – Exam 2
Chapter 7- IS AT THE BOTTOM. Bernot wrote it so hopefully it is useful
• Describe the structure of DNA and discuss how it facilitates the ability of DNA to act as genetic material
• Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic chromosomes
• Describe the process of DNA replication as a semi-conservative process. Compare and contrast the synthesis of the leading and lagging strands in DNA replication.
• Explain how the genotype of an organism determines its phenotype.
• State the central dogma of genetics and explain the roles of DNA and RNA in polypeptide (aka: protein) synthesis
• Describe the three steps of RNA transcription (initiation, elongation, termination) noting the roles of DNA, RNA polymerase, promoter, 5’-3’ direction, and terminator.
• Describe the genetic code and identify the relationship between codons and amino acids.
• Describe the process of translation identifying the roles of the three types of RNA.
• Define mutation and describe the different types of mutations: point, silent, missense, nonsense, frameshift insertion, frameshift deletion.
• Discuss how different types of radiation cause mutations in a genome.
• Describe three kinds of chemical mutagens and their effects: nucleotide analogs, nucleotide-altering chemicals, frameshift mutagens
• Describe light and dark repair of pyrimidine dimers, base-excision repair, mismatch repair, and the SOS response.
• Contrast the positive and negative selection techniques for isolating mutants.
• Describe the Ames test, and discuss its use in discovering carcinogens.
• Define: genetic recombination, recombinants, horizontal (lateral) gene transfer, donor cell, recipient cell, competent, transduction, bacteriophage, phage, transducing phages, conjugation, transposon and transposition
• Describe the three primary mechanisms of natural horizontal genetic transfer in bacteria: transformation, transduction, conjugation.
*chapter 8 will not be on the Exam*
• Contrast sterilization, disinfection, and antisepsis and describe their practical uses.
▪ Removal or destruction of ALL microbes, including viruses and bacterial endospores, in or on an object
▪ Used in Canned food and culture media
▪ Destruction of most microorganisms and viruses on nonliving tissue
▪ Does not guarantee that all pathogens are eliminated
▪ Used on nonliving objects only
▪ Examples phenolic; alcohols; aldehydes; soaps
▪ When chemicals are used on skin
▪ Similar to disinfection only it is used on skin
▪ Like disinfectants can be left on a surface for longer periods of time
▪ Examples include iodine; alcohol
• Contrast the terms degerming, sanitization, and pasteurization.
▪ Removing microbes by mechanical means
▪ Like washing your hands and scrubbing
▪ Or to prepare site of injection
▪ Scrubbing the surface may be more important than the chemical in removing microbes
▪ Removal of pathogens from objects to meet public health standards
▪ Like washing tableware in scalding water in restaurants
▪ Chemicals used on public toilets
▪ The use of heat to kill pathogens and reduce the number of spoilage microorganisms in food and beverages
▪ Used in milk, fruit juices, wine, and beer
• Compare the effects of –static versus –...
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