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BIO 113 Spring 2012 - Dr. MJ Bernot

Study Guide – Exam 2

Chapter 7- IS AT THE BOTTOM. Bernot wrote it so hopefully it is useful

• Describe the structure of DNA and discuss how it facilitates the ability of DNA to act as genetic material

• Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic chromosomes

• Describe the process of DNA replication as a semi-conservative process. Compare and contrast the synthesis of the leading and lagging strands in DNA replication.

• Explain how the genotype of an organism determines its phenotype.

• State the central dogma of genetics and explain the roles of DNA and RNA in polypeptide (aka: protein) synthesis

• Describe the three steps of RNA transcription (initiation, elongation, termination) noting the roles of DNA, RNA polymerase, promoter, 5’-3’ direction, and terminator.

• Describe the genetic code and identify the relationship between codons and amino acids.

• Describe the process of translation identifying the roles of the three types of RNA.

• Define mutation and describe the different types of mutations: point, silent, missense, nonsense, frameshift insertion, frameshift deletion.

• Discuss how different types of radiation cause mutations in a genome.

• Describe three kinds of chemical mutagens and their effects: nucleotide analogs, nucleotide-altering chemicals, frameshift mutagens

• Describe light and dark repair of pyrimidine dimers, base-excision repair, mismatch repair, and the SOS response.

• Contrast the positive and negative selection techniques for isolating mutants.

• Describe the Ames test, and discuss its use in discovering carcinogens.

• Define: genetic recombination, recombinants, horizontal (lateral) gene transfer, donor cell, recipient cell, competent, transduction, bacteriophage, phage, transducing phages, conjugation, transposon and transposition

• Describe the three primary mechanisms of natural horizontal genetic transfer in bacteria: transformation, transduction, conjugation.

*chapter 8 will not be on the Exam*

Chapter 9

• Contrast sterilization, disinfection, and antisepsis and describe their practical uses.

o Sterilization

▪ Removal or destruction of ALL microbes, including viruses and bacterial endospores, in or on an object

▪ Used in Canned food and culture media

o Disinfection

▪ Destruction of most microorganisms and viruses on nonliving tissue

▪ Does not guarantee that all pathogens are eliminated

▪ Used on nonliving objects only

▪ Examples phenolic; alcohols; aldehydes; soaps

o Antisepsis

▪ When chemicals are used on skin

▪ Similar to disinfection only it is used on skin

▪ Like disinfectants can be left on a surface for longer periods of time

▪ Examples include iodine; alcohol

• Contrast the terms degerming, sanitization, and pasteurization.

o Degerming

▪ Removing microbes by mechanical means

▪ Like washing your hands and scrubbing

▪ Or to prepare site of injection

▪ Scrubbing the surface may be more important than the chemical in removing microbes

o Sanitization

▪ Removal of pathogens from objects to meet public health standards

▪ Like washing tableware in scalding water in restaurants

▪ Chemicals used on public toilets

o Pasteurization

▪ The use of heat to kill pathogens and reduce the number of spoilage microorganisms in food and beverages

▪ Used in milk, fruit juices, wine, and beer

• Compare the effects of –static versus –...
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