Mgt 350 Exam 3 Notes

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  • Topic: Motivation, Organizational studies and human resource management, Management
  • Pages : 7 (1902 words )
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  • Published : February 11, 2013
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Chapter 7:
* Early theories of motivation:
Hierarchy of needs - Have to satisfy lower needs before you have higher needs. One at a time Lower order: [physiological -> safety -> social ->] higher order: [esteem -> self-actualization] Theory X/Y

Theory X - the assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, dislike responsibility, and must be coerced to perform Theory Y - the assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction two-factor theory - a theory that relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction. * Contemporary theories of motivation:

ERG theory –
There are three groups of core needs
1) Existence - provision of basic material requirements
2) Relatedness - desire for relationships
3) Growth - desire for personal development
Can tap into multiple needs at the same time
McClelland’s Theory of Needs - Achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation Cognitive evaluation theory - Allocating extrinsic rewards for behavior that have been previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease overall level of motivation. Don't give extrinsic motivation to people who are already intrinsic about it self-efficacy theory - "If you think you can, you can"

Way to increase self-efficacy:
-Enactive mastery - do the task and see you can do it
-Vicarious modeling - you see someone do something and it’s not that hard -Verbal persuasion - someone tells you you have the skills
-Arousal - getting them pumped
Goal-setting theory - specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance Reinforcement theory –
Behavior is a function of its consequences
Reinforced behavior tends to be repeated
You can reinforce verbally or with money or reward
Equity theory - Individual outcomes/individual inputs = others' outcomes/others' input Expectancy theory - Rewards that you want AND that you believe you have a decent chance of obtaining. (effort -> performance -> rewards -> needs/goals) Organizational justice – study of people’s perception of fairness in organizations * Intrinsic motivation - you get fulfillment from it. Hope's to develop intrinsic motivation in people Extrinsic motivation - offering you a reward for doing the work

Chapter 8:
* Management by objectives (MBO) - process of defining objectives within an organization so that management and employees agree to the objectives and understand what they are in the organization. * Employee Recognition - financial incentives may be more motivating in the short term, but in the long run its non-financial incentives * Employee Involvement - a participative process that uses the input of employees and is intended to increase employee commitment to an organization's success * Participative Management - a process in which subordinates share a significant degree of decision-making power with their immediate superiors. * Job (re)design:

Job rotation - self-actualization, minimizes boredom, cross training Job enlargement - job having many different tasks
Job enrichment - things that will make the job more interesting Job Characteristics Model - a model that proposes that any job can be described in terms of five core job dimensions: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback * Variable pay programs - a pay plan that bases a portion of an employee's pay on some individual and/or organizational measure of performance * Skill-based pay plans - a pay plan that sets pay levels on the basis of how many skills employees have or how many jobs they can do * Flexible Benefits - benefits plan that allows each employee to put together a benefits package individually tailored to his or her own needs and situation * Which motivation theories are related to MBO, employee recognition, job redesign, employee involvement, participative...
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