Mesopotamia and Ancient Hebrew Notes

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Dialectical Notes on Chapter 2

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-meso=land btwn 2 rivers
-first cities: Uruk, Ur, Kish, Nippur, Lagash] Sumer
-unpredictable flooding
-exposed w/ no geo barriers so attacks from nomads
-changes of weather
-mood of fear and insecurity
GODS
-gods assoc. w/ nature and forces
-gods were fierce and capricious
-myths w/ woe
-cosmology w/ chaos and conflict
-The Babylonian Creation=sumerian poem creation explained thru spontaneous generation, then there was chaos, then someone else took over and made everything -Main Gods:

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The Search for Immortality
-epic of gilgamesh shows search for immortality, oral then written down -epic=long poem w/ hero, reflective
-shows immortality ideology
RULERS
-early: priet-kings ruled as agents to gods
-Sargon I united city-states and created empire (consolidating peeps, langs under admin) -fell to nomads
SOCIAL ORDER
-specialization of jobs led to classes
-magician priests, soldiers, farmers, -“standard of Ur” (wooden panel) depicted classes -shows conquering of enemies, found in royal tomb, two slabs double sided Law and the Social Order in Babylon

-rulers of Babylon took over after 2000BCE
-made babylonian empire
-Hammurabi (6th ruler) made Hammurabis code on big rocks, from god shamash -written law est. justice and fairness
-tells us about class, fam, rights, responsibili
-individuals not equal, det. by $ and status
-laws favored rich: “pay according to status”
-slaves had no rights
-women were under control of men but had commercial freedom and protection -graves had artifacts: jewels, weapons, instru
-ziggurat: tower to get closer to gods, shrine and temple, platform for sanctuaries, center -like pyramids of the americas
-had clay tablets with cuneiform w/ economic activities, rel. customs, and rites -statues that show people praying to gods
-big priests small other people
-shows insecurity and vulnerability

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