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Mehap Outline

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The Changing Political Order in Europe, 1815 -1830

• All of Europe is traumatized by the Revolution
• The aristocratic monarchies won
o So they get to impose their peace
o It is a peace of reaction (going backwards)
▪ Go back to holy trinity of monarchy, nobility, church • But it’s hard to get the genie of liberation back in the bottle • Gradually, nationalism and liberalism become unstoppable movements

Nationalist Revolts
• Italy (1820 – 21)
o Hapsburg Ferdinand I reneges on liberal constitution of 1815 ▪ Revolts in Naples
▪ Army, middle class
o Revolt has both liberal and nationalist flavors
o F1 calls to COE for help
o Metternich calls Quadruple Alliance at meeting in Troppau ▪ All prepared to intervene except England
o Important break btw. England and COE
▪ Castlereagh says COE is not about internal affairs • Only spats between countries
▪ England now adopts policy of “splendid isolation” • Intentionally stays out of continental affairs o Except when it needs to right the balance

• Greece (1821 – 31)
o Greece is a territory of the Ottoman Empire
▪ But the fervor of nationalism has reached it from France o Revolt breaks out in Greece and Danubian provinces o Powers are divided on what to do
o Metternich and the Tsar don’t want an independent nation o France and England are more sympathetic
▪ Romanticism of Ancient Greece is a factor o F & E send ships to scene, destroy Ottoman’s fleet (Adrianople) o Russia intervenes against Turkey
▪ To grab territory
o By 1831, Mehmet Ali agrees to Greek independence
▪ A big mess for Austria-Hungary...

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