Media Ethics and Laws

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Indian Contract Act 1872
The law relating to contracts in India is contained in Indian Contract Act, 1872. The Act was passed by British India and is based on the principles of English Common Law. It is applicable to the All the States of India except the State of Jammu & Kashmir. It determines the circumstances in which promise made by the parties to a contract shall be legally binding on them. All of us enter into a number of contracts everyday knowingly or unknowingly. Each contract creates some right and duties upon the contracting parties. Indian contract deals with the enforcement of these rights and duties upon the parties in India. -------------------------------------------------

Definition
Section 2(h) of the Act defines the term contract as "any agreement enforceable by law". There are two essentials of this act, agreement and enforceability. Section 2(e) defines agreement as "every promise and every set of promises, forming the consideration for each other." Again Section 2(b) defines promise in these words: "when the person to whom the proposal is made signifies his assent thereto, the proposal is said to be accepted. Proposal when accepted, becomes a promise." And other words Say Agreement is Sum of

all contract are agreement, but all agreement are not contract..

CONTRACT=AGREEMENT+ENFORCEABLE BY LAW( LAW)
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[edit]Essential Elements of a Valid Contract
According to Section 10, "All agreements are contracts, if they are made by the free consent of the parties, competent to contract, for a lawful consideration with a lawful object, and not hereby expressly to be void." Essential Elements of a Valid Contract are:

1.Proper offer and proper acceptance. there must be an agreement based on a lawful offer made by person to another and lawful acceptance of that offer made by the latter. section 3 to 9 of the contract act, 1872 lay down the rules for making valid acceptance 2.Lawful consideration: An agreement to form a valid contract should be supported by consideration. Consideration means “something in return” (quid pro quo). It can be cash, kind, an act or abstinence. It can be past, present or future. However, consideration should be real and lawful. 3.Competent to contract or capacity: In order to make a valid contract the parties to it must be competent to be contracted. According to section 11 of the Contract Act, a person is considered to be competent to contract if he satisfies the following criterion: * The person has reached the age of maturity.

* The person is of sound mind.
* The person is not disqualified from contracting by any law. 4.Free Consent: To constitute a valid contract there must be free and genuine consent of the parties to the contract. It should not be obtained by misrepresentation, fraud, coercion, undue influence or mistake. 5.Lawful Object and Agreement: The object of the agreement must not be illegal or unlawful. 6. Agreement not declared void or illegal: Agreements which have been expressly declared void or illegal by law are not enforceable at law; hence they do not constitute a valid contract. 7. Intention To Create Legal Relationships:- when the two parties enter in to an agreement,there must be intention to create a legal relationship between them ...if there is no such intention on the part of the parties ..there is no contract between them ..agreements of a social or domestic nature do not contemplate legal relationship;as such they are not contracts. 8.Certainty, Possibility Of Performance

9. Legal Formalities 10. by surity
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[edit]Types of contracts
On the basis of validity:
1. Valid contract: An agreement which has all the essential elements of a contract is called a valid contract. A valid contract can be enforced by law. 2. Void contract[Section 2(g)]: A void contract is a contract which ceases to be...
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