Topics: Tuberculosis, Infectious disease, Infection Pages: 3 (739 words) Published: April 6, 2013
Measles: is an infection of the respiratory system caused by a virus, Symptoms: include fever, cough, runny nose, red eyes and a rash. Measles: is spread through respiration, the contact with any infected person in any way, including sex, saliva, or mucus, can cause infection making it highly contagious. It lasts from two to four days prior, until two to five days following the onset of the rash. Signs: and symptoms of measles include four-day fevers and the three Cs — cough, coryza (head cold), conjunctivitis (red eyes), fever, anorexia, and rashes. The fever may reach up to 40 °C (104 °F). Koplik's spots seen inside the mouth are pathognomonic (diagnostic) for measles, but are not often seen; they are transient and may disappear within a day of arising. The Rash: begins several days after the fever starts. It starts on the back of ears and, after a few hours, spreads to the head and neck before spreading to cover most of the body, often causing itching. The rash is said to "stain", changing colour from red to dark brown, before disappearing. Complications: with measles are relatively common, ranging from the relatively mild and less serious ones like diarrhoea to more serious ones such as pneumonia. Caused: the measles virus, a single-stranded, negative-sense enveloped RNA virus of the genus Morbilliviruses within the family Paramyxoviridae. Humans are the natural hosts of the virus; no animal reservoirs are known to exist. This highly contagious virus is spread by coughing and sneezing via close personal contact or direct contact with secretions. Risk factors for measles virus infection include the following: * Travel to areas where measles is endemic or contact with travelers to endemic areas * Infants who lose passive antibody before the age of routine immunization

Risk factors for severe measles and its complications include the following: * Malnutrition
* Underlying immunodeficiency
* Pregnancy
* Vitamin A deficiency
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