Material Science and Engineering, Chapter 1 Ppt

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Introduction to Materials Science and Engineering
Chapter 1. Introduction
Hyung-Joon Shin
School of Mechanical and Advanced Materials Engineering
Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST)
UNIST 2011 Spring AME20201
Introduction
• Course Objective:
Introduce fundamental concepts in Materials Science
• You will learn about:
• material structure
• how structure dictates properties
• how processing can change structure
the final
grade. Please actively take part in the class.
• Homework should be submitted before the class (NO delay is allowed).
• Make-up class will be scheduled with you, if necessary.
UNIST 2011 Spring AME20201
Schedule
Week
1-2
2-5
5-6
6-7
8
7,10
10-11
12-13
14-15
16
Topic
General Intro; Atomic Bonding
Crystalline Structure; Imperfections
Imperfections; Diffusion
Mechanical Properties
Midterm Exam
Dislocation & Strengthening Mechanisms
Failure & Phase Diagrams
Electrical & Thermal Prop.
Magnetic & Optical Prop.
Final Exam
Chapter
1,2
3,4
4,5
6
1-6
7
8,9
18-19
20-21
All
Grading: Quiz (15%), Homework (15%), Midterm (30%), Final (40%) UNIST 2011 Spring AME20201
Why should we know about Materials?
Materials drive our society !
–Stone Age
(~2.5 million BC)
–Bronze Age
(~3,500 BC)
–Iron Age
(~1,200 BC)
–Now?
• Silicon Age?
• Polymer Age?
Display Materials
Housing
Electronic
Applications Defense
Transportation
Energy
UNIST 2011 Spring AME20201
Why Materials ?
The Quality of Our Everyday Lives Is Improved by
Revolutionary Materials !!
History of Lighting
UNIST 2011 Spring AME20201
Why Study Materials Science and Engineering ?
Tacoma Narrow Bridge Collapsing (1940)
Material Failure
Harsh Environments
Deterioration during
in-service conditions
UNIST 2011 Spring AME20201
Materials Science and Materials Engineering
 Materials Science
 Materials Engineering
- investigating the relationships that exist between
the structure and properties of materials
- designing or engineering the structure of materials
to produce a predetermined set of properties, on the
basis of structure-property correlations
UNIST 2011 Spring AME20201
Structure and Properties
 Structure
- Subatomic structure
: involves electrons within the individual atoms and interactions with their nuclei
- Crystal structures
: Organization of atoms or molecules with ordered sequences one after another
- Microstructure
: large groups of atoms that are normally agglomerated together - Macrostructure
 Properties
A materials trait in terms of the kind and magnitude of
response to external stimulus (E, H, hν, σ,T etc.)
UNIST 2011 Spring AME20201
What Determines Materials Properties ?
Diamond Graphite
Hardness
Bond Length
Density
Cleavage
Crystal Structure
10
1.54 Å
3.5 g/cm3
(111)
Cubic
2
1.48/3.4 Å
2.2 g/cm3
(0001)
Hexagonal
UNIST 2011 Spring AME20201
Materials Classification
 Materials: Metal, Ceramic, Polymer, Composite
 Chemical  Structure  Properties
- Organic
- Inorganic
- Crystalline
- Single Crystal
- Polycrystalline
- Amorphous
- Electronic
- Optical
- Magnetic
- Structural
- Biomaterials
Depending on chemical make-up, atomic structure,,,
UNIST 2011 Spring AME20201
Types of Materials
• Metals:
– Strong, ductile
– High thermal & electrical conductivity
– Opaque, reflective.
• Ceramics: Ionic/ Covalent bonding (refractory)
– Compounds of metallic & non-metallic elements
(oxides, carbides, nitrides, sulfides)
– Brittle, glassy, elastic
– Non-conducting (insulators)
• Polymers: Covalent bonding
– Soft, ductile, low strength, low density
– Thermal & electrical insulators
– Optically translucent or transparent.
UNIST 2011 Spring AME20201
Materials Classification
UNIST 2011 Spring AME20201
Materials Classification
UNIST 2011 Spring AME20201
Materials Classification
UNIST 2011 Spring AME20201
Materials Classification
UNIST 2011 Spring AME20201
Advanced Materials: Semiconductor
...
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