Management Theory and Practice

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QUESTION1: What are the essential differences between motivators and hygiene factors in Herzberg’s theory of motivation? ANSWER: The essential differences between motivators and hygiene factors in Herzberg’s theory are: Factors Affecting Job Attitudes

* Company policy * Supervision * Salary * Work conditions * Interpersonal relations * Status * Security| * Achievement * Recognition * Nature of work * Responsibility * Promotion prospects| Herzberg reasoned that because the factors causing satisfaction are different from those causing dissatisfaction, the two feelings cannot simply be treated as opposites of one another. According to Herzberg, the factors leading to job satisfaction are "separate and distinct from those that lead to job dissatisfaction." Therefore, if you set about eliminating dissatisfying job factors you may create peace, but not necessarily enhance performance. QUESTION2: What is “Theory Z” and to what extent can its underlying assumptions be transferred to non-Japanese manufacturing companies? ANSWER: Theory Z is an approach to management based upon a combination of American and Japanese management philosophies and characterized by, among other things, long-term job security, consensual decision making, slow evaluation and promotion procedures, and individual responsibility within a group context. Proponents of Theory Z suggest that it leads to improvements in organizational performance. Theory Z organizations exhibit a strong, homogeneous set of cultural values that are similar to clan cultures. The clan culture is characterized by homogeneity of values, beliefs, and objectives. They emphasize complete socialization of members to achieve congruence of individual and group goals. Although Theory Z organizations exhibit characteristics of clan cultures, they retain some elements of bureaucratic hierarchies, such as formal...
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