Chapter 1: (Stair and Reynolds; class slides)
* Hierarchy of Data
* Systematic organization of data.
* Data – raw facts and figures by itself.
* Alphanumeric data – numbers, letters and other characters * Image data – graphic images and pictures
* Audio data – sound, noise or tones
* Video data – moving images or pictures
* Information – collection of facts organized in such a way that they have value beyond the facts themselves. * Knowledge – awareness and understanding of a set of information. Data + | Information | Knowledge |
Raw facts and figures, by itself, tells you nothing.| Data in context, so you can answer a question, make a decision. | Insight from experience and expertise—understanding of how info. can be used for a task, make a decision. | 23 F| Tonight’s low temperature will be 23 F| When the temperature is less than 25 F, our snow making equipment can cover the trail in 2 hours. |
* Knowledge workers
* People who create, use, and disseminate knowledge and are usually professionals in science, engineering, business, and other areas. * Well educated, relatively autonomous, continuously learning, “expert,” who creates, modifies or synthesizes information as a fundamental part of their jobs
* Characteristics of Valuable Information
* All information is not equal.
* If an organization’s information is not accurate or complete: * People can make poor decisions, costing thousands or even millions of dollars. * Depending on the type of information you need:
* Some characteristics become more important than others. Characteristics| Definitions|
Accessible| Right format at right time.|
*Accurate| Error free (garbage in, garbage out).|
*Complete| Contains all import facts.|
*Economical| Benefit greater than cost to produce. |
Flexible| Useful for variety of purposes.|
*Relevant | Important to the decision maker. |
Reliable | Can be trusted by others. |
Secure| Protected from unauthorized access. |
*Simple| Not overly complex—information overload. |
*Timely| Delivered when needed. |
Verified | “Correctness” can be checked. |
* Systems Concepts: Four components of any system (including car washes, organizations, & computer-based information systems.) * System – a set of elements or components that interact to accomplish goals. * Inputs – gathering and capturing raw data
* Example: the dirty car, water, and various cleaning ingredients; as well as time, energy, skill and knowledge * Example 2: before you can get your grade, I have to enter each assessment into the grade book. * Processing Mechanisms – converting or transforming data into useful outputs * Example: (1) selecting the cleaning option you want and communicating that to the operator of the car wash. * Example 2: your course grade is calculated by summing scores on assessments and dividing my number of assessments, adding bonus points, subtracting, etc * Outputs – production of useful information usually in the form of documents or reports * Example: assessment of how clean the car is.
* Example 2: your grade reports
* Feedback – output that is used to make changes to inputs or processing * Example: the clean car.
* Example 2: negative score, score greater than 100%
* Five elements of a computer-based information system
* CBIS – single set of hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, people and procedures that are configured to collect, manipulate, store and process data into information. * Hardware – physical components of a computer that perform the input, processing, storage, and output activities of the computer. * Software – computer programs...