The scope and purpose of MIS is better understood if each part of the term is defined. Thus,
Management:-It has been defined in a variety of ways, but for our purposes it comprises the processes of activities that describe what managers do in their organization, plan, organize, initiate, and control operations. They plan by setting strategies and goals and selecting the best course of action to achieve the plan. They organize the tasks necessary for the operational plan, set these tasks up into homogeneous groups, and assign authority delegation. They control the performance of the work by setting performance standards and avoiding deviations from the standards.
Because decision making is such a fundamental prerequisite to each of the foregoing processes, the job of an MIS becomes that of facilitating decisions necessary for planning, organizing, and controlling the work and functions of the business.
Information:-Data must be distinguished from information, and this distinction is clear and important for our purposes. Data are facts and figures that are not currently being used in a decision process and usually take the form of historical records that are recorded and filed without immediate intent to retrieve for decision making.
Information consists of data that have been retrieved, processed, or otherwise used for informative or inference purposes, argument, or as a basis for forecasting or decision making.
Systems: - A system can be described simply as a set of elements joined together for a common objective. A subsystem is part of a larger system with which we are concerned. All systems are parts of larger systems. For our purposes the organization is the system and the parts (divisions, departments, functions, units, etc.) are the subsystems.
WHAT IS AN INFORMATION SYSTEM
An information system can be any organized combination of people, hardware, software, communications networks, and data resources that collects, transforms, and disseminates information in an organization.
Hardware: People have relied of information systems to communicate with each other using a variety of physical devices
Software: information processing instructions and procedures
Networks: Communications channels
Data resources: stored data
Business professionals rely on many types of information systems that use a variety of information technologies. For example, some information systems use simple manual (paper and pencil) hardware devices and informal (word of mouth) communications channels. However, in this text, we well concentrate on computer based information systems that use computer hardware and software, the internet and other telecommunications networks, computer-based data resource management techniques, and many other computer-based information technologies to transform data resources into an endless variety of information products for consumers and business professionals.
INFORMATION SYSTEM FRAMEWORK FOR BUSINESS PROFESSIONALS
The field of information systems encompasses many complex technologies, abstract behavioral concepts, and specialized applications in countless business and non business areas. As a manager or business professional you do not have to absorb all of this knowledge.
•Foundation concepts: fundamental behavioral, technical, business, and managerial concepts about the components and roles of information systems. •Information technologies: major concepts, developments, and management issues in information technology- that is, hardware, software, networks, data resource management, and many internet-based technologies. •Business applications: the major uses of information...