What is perception
Perception: a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. * The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviorally important
Factors influencing perception
Person Perception: Making judgments about others
* Person perception: the perceptions people form about each other Attribution theory
Attribution theory: an attempt when individuals observe behavior to determine whether it is internally or externally caused * 3 factors of determination: distinctiveness, consensus, and consistency * Distinctiveness: whether an individual displays different behaviors in different situations * Consensus: if everyone who faces a similar situation responds in the same way * Consistency: does the person respond the same way over time * Internally: caused behaviors that are believed to be under personal control of the individual * Externally: caused behavior seen as resulting from outside causes; the person is seen as having been forced into the behavior by the situation
Fundamental attribution error: the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behaviors of others. Self-serving bias: the tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors
Frequently used shortcuts in judging others
Selective perception: selectively interpreting what one sees on the basis of one’s interests, background, experience, and attitudes. Halo effect: drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic Contrast effects: evaluation of a person’s characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics Projection: attributing one’s own characteristics to another person Stereotyping: judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs.
Specific applications of shortcuts in organizations
Employment review – judgments can vary widely. First impressions are always important. Who I might think is a good candidate may be extremely different from another person’s evaluation of a candidate. Information elicited early in the interview carries greater weight than information elicited later. Performance expectations –
* Self-fulfilling prophecy (Pygmalion effect): a situation in which one person inaccurately perceives a second person and the resulting expectations cause the second person to behave in ways consistent with the original perception. Ethnic profiling –
* Profiling: a form of stereotyping in which a group of individuals is singled out – typically on the basis of race or ethnicity – for intensive inquiry, scrutinizing, or investigation. Performance evaluation – the appraisal is dependent on the perceptual process.The evaluator forms a general impression of the employees work. To the degree that managers use subjective measures in appraising employee
The link between perception and individual decision making
Decisions: the choices made from among two or more alternatives. Problem: a discrepancy between some current state of affairs and some desired state
How should decisions be made?
The Rational Decision Making process
Rational: making consistent, value-maximizing choices within specified constraints Rational Decision-making model:
Assumptions of the model:
1. Problem clarity
2. Known options
3. Clear preferences – criteria and alternatives can be ranked and weighted to reflect importance 4. Constant preferences – specific decision criteria are constant and that the weights assigned to them are stable over time 5. No time or cost constraints – decision maker can obtain full...