* April 26, 1907 – group of ships bearing 128 men sailed into the Chesapeake Bay; began the settlement of Jamestown --►first successful plantation in the Americas * English had attempted to establish colonies in locations as varied as present-day Maine and Virginia --►but all had failed * Colony’s early years were horrific
* Colonists were more interested in finding precious metals than feeding themselves * They encountered a variety of new diseases in the swampland in Jamestown * Many were gentlemen who felt it below their stations to clear fields or build stockades (barriers) * Nine months after their arrival only 138 of the English adventurers were alive * Developments led Jamestown out of its privation (lack of necessities) * Several more years of starvation and disease.
* 1611 - Colonists began planting West Indian tobacco
* Within 2 decades tobacco exports grew to 1.5 million pounds; tobacco was a demanding crop. * Rapidly depleted the soil which increased the demand for land, and required intensive labor --►which led to the importation of unfree workers
* Colonists and indentured servants increasingly looked to the lands controlled by the Indians --►resulted in a conflict between two groups--►was the basis of the demands in Bacon’s Rebellion - uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony in North America, led by a planter named Nathaniel Bacon; thousand Virginians rose (including former indentured servants, poor whites and poor blacks) because they resented Virginia Governor William Berkeley's friendly policies towards the Native Americans * In the early years European indentured servants were laborers, later replaced by African slaves * Increase in slave population; 1690 – Chesapeake area contained more African slaves than European servants * Series of other colonies formed: Maryland, Carolinas, Georgia --►joined profitable British colonies in Caribbean & based in large parts of staple crops * Chesapeake (grew tobacco), South Carolina & Georgia (indigo, purple dye, & rice), Caribbean colonies (grew sugar)
Document 1 – Edward Waterhouse, a British official, Recounts an Indian Attack on Early Virginia Settlement, 1622 * Reports on an Indian attack on English colonists in 1622 & argues that the English now have a right to destroy their Indian adversaries (forces that opposes or attacks) * Termed the 1622 attack a “massacre”
* Houses generally set open to the Savages – who were always friendly entertained at the tables of the English, & commonly lodged in their bed-chambers * Such was the treacherous(unreliable, traitorous) dissimilation (acts; pretending) of the people who then had contrived (planned or forced) our destruction, even two days before the massacre some of the men were guided through the woods by them in safety * Borrowed our own boats to convey themselves across the river (on the banks of both sides whereof all our plantations were) to consult of the devilish murder that ensued (came after) and of our utter extirpation(extermination; to remove or destroy totally) which God of his mercy (by the means of some of themselves converted to Christianity) prevented * Friday morning of March 22nd and evening, they came unarmed into our houses without bows or arrows, or other weapons, with deer, turkey, fish, furs, etc. to sell, and truck with us, for glass, beads and other trifles (small quantities of other things): in some places sat down at breakfast with our people at their tables * And this means that fatal Friday...