‘입니다’ is a descriptive particle meaning “to be”. It is attached onto the end of a given noun and serves as a predicate. It is used with reference to persons or things. 입니다 is the polite formal conjugation of 이다.
(예) 저는 학생입니다.
‘입니까?’ is the question form of 입니다.
(예) 저 남자는 학생입니까?
‘-이/가 아닙니다’ is the negation form of 입니다. (예) 저는 학생이 아닙니다.
저는 가수가 아닙니다.
‘은/는’ follows a noun, indicating that it is the topic under discussion. The topic is often, but not necessarily, the same as the subject. It is used when a speaker wishes to emphasize a particular noun or refer to a noun known to both speaker and listener. If the noun ends with a 받침+는 (예) 저는 학생입니다. If the noun ends without a 받침+은 (예) 이 사람은 선생님입니다. 이/그/저(Indicative Pre-nominals)
When the object 1.When the object
being referred to being referred to is
is close to the close to the listener
2.When the object
being referred to is
not visible to both
Pronoun 이것(this thing)
Adjective 이 사람(this person) 그 사람(that person)
이 책(this book)
그 책(that book)
When the object
being referred to
is visible but far
from both speaker
저 사람(that person)
저 책(that book)
N의 N(N’s N)
This particle represents genitive case or a possessive relation. It is attached to the preceding noun and modifies the following noun.
When the personal pronouns 나, 너 and 저 are followed by 의, they become 내, 네 and
(예)은정 씨의 시계, 선생님의 가방, 내 신발, 제 우산,,,, 3과
V습니다/ㅂ니다 (Affirmative Verb Ending)
This is the affirmative verb ending for the polite formal style. Verb stems ending with a 받침+습니다 (예) 먹다→먹습니다, 듣다→듣습니다 Verb stems ending without a 받침+ㅂ니다 (예) 마시다→마십니다, 보다→봅니다 * The verb form like 보다, 먹다, 마시다, 하다 is called the basic form or infinitive form. The verb stem is made when ‘다’ is omitted from the basic form and many verb forms are made by adding some patterns to this verb stem.
*하다 Verb : Many nouns can be made into present tense verbs by adding the verb ‘N+ 하다’.
(예) 운동하다, 공부하다, 쇼핑하다, 요리하다,,,, V습니까?/ㅂ니까? (Interrogative Verb Ending)
“V습니까?/ㅂ니까?” is the question form of “V습니다/ㅂ니다”. (예) 먹다:먹습니다→먹습니까? 듣다:듣습니다→듣습니까? (예) 마시다:마십니다→마십니까? 보다:봅니다→봅니까? N을/를(Objective Particle)
‘-을/를’ are attached to the end of a noun to make it the direct object of the verb. Transitive verbs are verbs which require an object.
If the noun ends without a 받침+를 (예)친구를 만납니다. 한국어를 가르칩니다. If the noun ends with a 받침+을 (예) 빵을 먹습니다. 책을 읽습니다. Interrogative ‘무엇(뭐)’ and object marker ‘를’ are often shortened into ‘뭘’ (예)무엇을 좋아해요?→뭘 좋아해요?
‘-에서’ is attached to a place to indicate where the action of the verb phrase takes place. This particle is used together with action verbs and serves to indicate where a given action takes place. When used with 오다, it indicates the place of origin, i.e. “from” in English.
(예)도서관에서 한국어를 공부합니다.(in the library) 백화점에서 쇼핑을 합니다.(at the department store) 제니퍼 씨는 중국에서 왔어요.(from China)
The subject particle ‘이/가’ is attached to a noun to indicate that it is the subject of the sentence.
Nouns ending with a 받침 take 이 (예) 베이징이, 부모님이 Nouns ending without a 받침 가 (예) 도쿄가, 친구가
Certain irregular uses of 가 also exist. When the personal pronouns 나, 너 and 저 are followed by 가, they become 내가, 네가 and 제가 respectively. Similarly, when the question form 누구 is followed by 가, it becomes 누가.
N에(to) 가다/오다/다니다/앉다 (Locative Particle)
‘-에’ denotes destination when it is followed by a verb associated with movement like 가다, 오다, 다니다.
(예) 학교에 갑니다. (I am going to school)
어디에 갑니까? (Where are you going?)
N에(at, in) 있다/없다 (Locative Particle)
‘-에‘ is used with 있다/없다 to show...