Linking Words

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STUDENT Learning Centre
FLINDERS UNIVERSITY

LINKING WORDS AND PHRASES

Most pieces of formal writing are organised in a similar way: introduction; development of main ideas or arguments; conclusion. Linking words and phrases join clauses, sentences and paragraphs together. A piece of writing or text may include the following:

idea

and

one idea is linked to another

idea

or

an alternative is presented

idea

but

an objection is made

idea

Connectives The main linking words and phrases are grouped below according to the similarity of their meaning to the three basic connectives and, or, but. Some can be used to link paragraphs and others can only be used to link ideas within a paragraph. 1 enumeration (points in order) 2 addition i reinforcement ii comparison b transition (leads to a new stage) c summary (gives a summary or conclusion) d reference (refers to what was said before) e example f result (the consequence of what was said before) g place (refers to things in or outside the document) h time (refers to other studies) a listing i reformulation (expresses something in another way) j replacement (expresses an alternative) k contrast (presents a different view) l concession (agrees that something is good, with limitations)

1 and

2 or 3 but 1. a) and

Listing 1. Enumeration indicates a cataloguing of what is being said. Most lists use clearly defined groups of words: first, furthermore, finally,

one

a second

a third

etc.

first(ly),

second(ly), ...

third(ly), ...

etc.

to begin/start with,

in the second place,

moreover,

to conclude,

above all last but not least first and foremost first and most importantly

mark the end of an ascending order mark the beginning of a descending order

STUDY SKILLS BROCHURE SLC/06/2006 CRICOS Registered Provider: The Flinders University of South Australia CRICOS Provider Number: 00114A

2.

Addition to what has been previously indicated. i. Reinforcement (includes confirmation): above all actually additionally again also as well (as) besides especially further furthermore what is more indeed in addition moreover not only . . . but also . . . notably obviously particularly specifically then too

ii. Comparison (similarity to what has preceded):

also both . . . and . . . correspondingly equally

in the same way likewise similarly too

b)

Transition (can lead to a new stage in the sequence of thought): now regarding turning to with respect/regard to as for as to

often used when discussing something briefly

c)

Summary (a generalisation or summing up of what has preceded): altogether hence in brief in conclusion in short overall then therefore thus to conclude to sum up to summarise

d)

Reference (refers back to previous sentences): and as follows chiefly for instance for example in other words in particular including mainly mostly namely notably or particularly such as that is

e)

Example: for example for instance such as to illustrate as an illustration to demonstrate

f)

Result (expresses the consequence or result from what is implicit in the preceding sentence or sentences): accordingly as a result as a consequence because of consequently for this/that reason hence in order that now so so that the consequence is the result is then therefore thus

g)

Place: above adjacent at the side behind below elsewhere here in front in the background in the foreground there to the left to the right

STUDY SKILLS BROCHURE SLC/06/2006 CRICOS Registered Provider: The Flinders University of South Australia CRICOS Provider Number: 00114A

h)

Time: after a while afterwards at last at that time at the same time before currently earlier eventually finally formerly in the meantime in the past initially later meanwhile now once presently previously shortly simultaneously since soon subsequently then thereafter until until now whenever while

2. i)

or Reformulation (expresses...
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