Chapter 16: Life at the Turn of the 20th Century
***New Technologies improve urban living and a modern mass culture emerges. Reforms in Public education raise literacy rates; African Americans work to end legal discrimination. Advances in science and technology help solve Urban problems, including overcrowding, unsanitary conditions, and death***
Section 1: Science and Urban Life:
* Urban Planners- Mapped out plans for where buildings and companies would be constructed based on what was around them to complement each other. * Louis Sullivan was an architectural pioneer who designed the “proud and soaring,” ten story Wainwright building in St. Louis, Missouri. * Boston was a city of Back Bay area where it was originally 450 acre swamp land. * Daniel Burnham- an architect who created the flat iron building and an overall plan for Chicago that included a lake front of elegant parks along Lake Michigan. * Skyscrapers were made possible by elevators and steel supporters for this huge land-saver. * A landscape architect spearheaded the movement for planning urban parks, named Fredrick Law Olmsted. * Brooklyn Bridge was completed in 1883, this “eighth wonder of the world” that connected Brooklyn to Manhattan took 14 years to build. * Growing demands for newspapers, magazines, and books.
* By 1900, electric street cars (trolleys) run from suburbs to downtown. * Orville and Wilbur Wright were pioneer aviators that helped make airmail possible by developing the first powered airplane or “heavier-than-air” craft. First successful flight in December 1903. * Central Park was intended to soothe the inhabitants of New York City and let them enjoy a “natural setting” while it was both close and free, therefore permitting all classes. * George Eastman created the first Kodak Camera, being easing to hold and operate. Using flexibly coasted roll film instead of heavy glass plates. * Richmond was the first American city to electrify...
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