Lecture #3 – Canals, Raftsmen, and Snakeheads
1. Was moving goods over a macadam road cheaper than on water? It was cheaper and faster to move goods over water due to roads that were uneven in quality. 2. Can a river or lake be part of a canal?
Absolutely. Rivers could be improved with weirs, flash locks, and levees. Canals may include cuttings as well as improved stretches of river. 3. In what U.S. state do we find the first macadam road?
Maryland, in 1823 on the Baltimore to Ohio route.
4. In what Canadian province do we find the first macadam road? Quebec. St. Jean to Laprairie on the St. Lawrence in 1832.
5. Name one Mediterranean country where a canal was built in Antiquity? Italy. The Romans and the Egyptians built a canal to connect the Nile to the Red Sea. The Persians also built a canal to go around Mount Athos when they were invading Greece. 6. Name one country in Asia where canals were dug in the first millennium A.D.? China. Much of the 2000 km Grand Canal was built in the 7th and 8th centuries. 7. What was the original purpose of the Milanese “Naviglio Grande”? Irrigation. In 1233 it was halted while extending 30 km. It then became used for the transport of goods leading to an additional network of canals. 8. Name one long-lasting use of the “canal de Craponne” in France? It was originally built for irrigation but continued to feed watermills into the 20th century. 9. To what end was the Exeter Canal built in 16th-century England? It included pound locks.
10. What was the original intent of the “Canal des Deux-Mers” in France? To continue as a navigation canal into the Atlantic. It was one of the first summit canals but only spans 240 km from the Mediterranean to Toulouse. 11. Between 1600 and 1760, the length of navigable rivers in Great Britain increased by: (a) 500 miles, (b) 600 miles, or (c) 700 miles? – From 700 to 1300 mi. 12. In what way was a river a better navigation route than a canal? It was cheaper and required far less maintenance than a canal. 13. In what way was a canal a better navigation route than a river? Canals didn’t have to contend with a current or ‘upstream haulage.’ 14. What was one common feature of most existing boats on North American waterways before 1800? Poles.
15. Why were canoes still used for river transportation in the 19th century? They were cheap and relatively fast.
16. Name one limitation of the iceboat.
It only worked in the winter when it was sufficiently cold enough. 17. What was the main advantage of the current-driven machine in Paris? It was able to pull boats upstream.
18. How old (at least) is the concept of the horseboat?
Animal driven propulsion was depicted in the 4th century.
19. What are the main advantages of horseboats?
The treadmill horseboat was one of the most efficient early advances and stayed is use the longest. 20. What are the main drawbacks of horseboats?
The horses would suffer from a type of vertigo when capstans were used. 21. How old (at least) is the treadwheel?
1867 – Bolton, Quebec.
22. If treadmills were so efficient, why did horseboats disappear? 23. What was new about the first Boulton and Watt steam engine? In 1769 Watt patented a single acting steam engine with condenser. 24. What was new about the second Boulton and Watt steam engine? In 1782 Boulton and Watt patented the first double acting steam engine, creating a vacuum both above and below the piston. This design also introduced parallel motion linkage between the piston rod and balance beam. 25. In what country was the first practical steamboat launched? In 1807-1809 the first practical steamboats were launched in the U.S. and Canada. In the United States, John Fitch developed the first practical steamboat in 1790 that ran from Philadelphia to Trenton. 26. Name three (3) reasons why the U.S. Senate wished to improve transportation...