1 Convergence of MCMC Algorithm
We discuss two issues: Convergence and Mixing. These two things are strongly related, but not completely the same. The chain have mixing will typically have a slow convergences. But you still can tell the dierence if you study the dierent points.

Remember that when we discuss the MCMC algorithm, its the algorithm that classically explores the spaces on the posterior distributions, and that tends to explore more if you have more posterior probability. If you think about an algorithm it terms of the sort of random exploration of the spaces to focus on the algorithm have the higher probability it seems to think about how these two things are dierent. 1.1 Dierence between Convergence and Mixing

1. Convergence
How fast you move from your starting point ( (0) ) towards a region of high probability. It is a transiting state of the chain : form the beginning (random starting place) to the place we want. 2. Mixing

How fast we explore the high probability regions once you have "forgotten" for initial state. There is an example of the dierence between Convergence and Mixing. (See Figure 1) The reason people discuss them separately : Converge could be very quick if you have a good starting point. But the mixing is a something you can not deal with easily.

1.2 Convergence
1.2.1 The Gold Standard
The optimal gold standard would be to explore the "distance" between 0 (initial state) and n (state after n iterations) Hopefully this distance decrecses with n and we can pick the number of observations to burn by bounding that distance.

...March 26, 2013 Lecture
-The function of the eye is to convert photons of light into action potentials (nerve impulses).
-The inner layer is a nervous tunic (made out of nerve cells)=retina.
-Refraction: Bends light.
-The purpose of the cornea and the lens is to take an object and focus every little detail of the object on the retina on the back of the lens. Upside down and backwards.
-When light goes through medias, it bends.
-Lens are suspended by ligaments behind the pupil. Suspensory ligaments.
-Aqueous humor, vitreous, intraocular pressure. Liquid that creates internal pressure much like air in a basketball. Excess amount of intraocular pressure=glaucoma.
-The natural thermodynamically stable configuration or shape of a lens is more round like a marble (SPHERICAL).
-Why is an eye ball flat? The ligaments. The intraocular pressure stretches the lens flat? Flat is good for distance vision. Round is good for close vision.
-Ciliary muscle. When it contracts it will squeeze the eyeball smaller so it loosens the ligaments. Contract the muscle will make the lens round.
-The eye muscles are relaxing when viewing far away.
-------------------------------------------------
Photon: unit of light.
-Want to take the photons of light and convert them to nerve impulses.
-Converting a photon of light into nerve impulse: transduction.
Two kinds of photoreceptors: receive photons of light.
Rods: Can only see in very very dim light. It is too...

...Chapter 1 –Introduction to Computers - Review
Why Is Computer Literacy Vital in Today's World?
Computer literacy, or digital literacy, involves having current knowledge and understanding of computers and their uses. The requirements that determine computer literacy change as technology changes. As computers become more a part of everyday life, many people believe that computer literacy is vital to success.
What Is a Computer, and What Is the Relationship between Data and Information?
A computer is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory, that can accept data, process the data according to specified rules, produce results, and stores the results for future use. Data is a collection of unprocessed items, which can include text, numbers, images, audio, and video. Information conveys meaning and is useful to people.
List and Describe the Five Components of a Computer.
The electric, electronic, and mechanical components of a computer, or hardware, include input devices, output devices, a system unit, storage devices, and communications devices. An input device allows you to enter data or instructions into a computer. An output device conveys information to one or more people. The system unit is a case that contains the electronic components of a computer that are used to process data. A storage device records and/or retrieves items to and from storage media. A communications device enables a computer to send and...

...Where:
Room 106 Farrell Hall (microcomputer classroom)
/3/ Lecturenotes are posted at
www.pa.msu.edu/courses/phy101 .
101 lecture 1
1
PHY 101 – Lecture 1
Math. Techniques
1 - Algebra
2 - Trigonometry
3 – Analytic geometry
4 - Computer simulation
5 – Calculus
Algebra: Use symbols to stand for numbers.
Example
101 lecture 1
2
2 – Trigonometry
We start with right triangles.
Trigonometry Example
But there’s more to it than
that.
101 lecture 1
3
3 – Analytic geometry
The ellipse
Use algebra (and calculus) to analyze
geometry problems.
Key technique: coordinates
Rene DesCartes
101 lecture 1
4
4 - Computer simulation
Calculate the area and circumference of an ellipse.
Learn to use the computer program
“Mathematica” which is available in
the microcomputer labs in Farrell
Hall. (You can’t afford to buy it for
your own computer, but MSU has a
site license.)
Preliminary. A circle is a special case of an ellipse;
the eccentricity is 0. Semi-major axis = Semi-minor
axis
a = b = radius r.
For simple computer problems, you
could use and EXCEL spreadsheet
program, or Wolfram Alpha.
But the easiest way is to use
Mathematica.
Everyone knows the formulas for the area and
circumference:
Area = r2 ; Circumference = 2 r .
As a numerical example, suppose the radius is 1 m.
Then the area is 3.14 m2...

...Lecture 2014-01-29
Strategy Formation
Chapter outline:
I. The Issue of Realized Strategy
Strategy Formation Activities
Strategy Activity Roles
II. The Paradox of Deliberateness and Emergence
The Demand for Deliberate Strategizing
The Demand for Strategy Emergence
III. Perspectives on Strategy Formation
The Strategic Planning Perspective
The Strategic Incrementalism Perspective
IV. The Debate and Readings
Mission – “Some task, duty or purpose that sends someone on their way” (DVM 258)
Realized strategy:
Note: DVM see this as a circle, illustrated above, while one could assume that a company’s strategy starts in the identifying phase, e.g. by setting a mission
Strategy formation roles:
Top vs. middle vs. bottom roles
How much empowerment of middle or lower levels is beneficial for the organization?
Line vs. staff roles
Which of these two groups should be responsible for the strategy formation process?
Internal vs. external roles
Outsourcing or keep it in-house?
Deliberate strategizing Pressure:
Direction Without plans and objectives, organizations would be adrift
Commitment Plans enable early commitment to a course of action
Coordination Plans have the benefit of coordinating all strategic initiatives within a firm to cohesive pattern
Optimization Plans facilitate optimal resource allocation
Programming Plans are a means for programming all organizational activities in advance...

...• Some of these are Means rather than Ends, e.g., Fiscal Deficit • The most important objectives of economic policy making should be creating jobs and reducing poverty, but decision makers are hardly evaluated on these basis
5
Lecture plan
Topic 1 Topic 2 Topic 3 Topic 4 Topic 5 Topic 6 Topic 7 Topic 8 Introduction India’s economic strategy: from development planning to economic reforms Growth and crises in Indian economy Trade and industrial reforms Financial sector reforms and monetary policy Fiscal policy and fiscal deficit Balance of payments, trade and capital flows Unemployment, poverty and inequality
6
Examination
• Closed book end-term examination:
– – – – Lecture PPTs Class discussions Readings recommended Opinions must have factual and logical basis:
• Different readings may have different approaches
• Separate question papers – Sections (A, B and F); (C and E) and (D) • Grades to be normalized
7
Grade normalization target
• • • • • • • A plus: 10% of the students A only: 15% A minus: 15% B plus: 25% B only: 15% B minus: 10% C plus/F: 10%
8
Note: Actual distribution may vary across sections
Lectures
• PPTs in course web • Discussions in class room: – PPTs uploaded are not substitutes for class lectures – Apart from class rooms, students may ask questions through email (sudip@iimcal.ac.in) – Discussion sessions – 2nd week onwards?
• Clarifications:
– Most...

...Lecture 1
Date: 29.07.2013
1. Syllabi: 8 units available at Solapur University website also under courses link
2. Note down the books to be referred to:
1. Management: Stoner, Freeman and Gilbert
2. Management: Global Perspective: Heinz Weihrich, Cannice and Harold Koontz
3. Principles of Management: Tripathi and Reddy
4. Principles of Management – Ramasamy
5. Principles and Practices of Management – LM Prasad
6. International Management – Gene Burton and Manab Thakur
7. Introduction to Management – John Schermerhorn
3. Assessment is a combination of internal and external examination with a mark ratio of 30:70 making a total of 100. One semester = 15 weeks; 4 hours per week; 3 hours for teaching and learning and 1 hour each week for internal evaluation. 70 marks of a comprehensive written exam are there with one case; 2 short answers questions and 2 long answers questions. (all of 14 marks each)
4. Internal Assessment =
• 4 case studies of 25 marks each making it 100; case study would be given a week before.
• each student to give one seminar of 50 marks; Dress code is formal; need to speak for 5 minutes with conclusion and submission of prepared material a week before
• 2 assignments of 25 marks each making it a total of 50 marks – one is a class assignment and other is home assignment and
• One group exercise/activity of 50 marks each...

... 1 2 3
A ------------- B --------------- C --------------- D
leather shoe parts shoes packed shoes
Now shoe sales are dropping and backpack sales are increasing. As a result, the manager of the factory decides to switch production from shoes to backpacks. Where should the shoe-making process be shut down: step 1, 2, or 3?
Homework:
1. Manage your class notes.
Pay special attention to:
Learning to know and use new vocabulary words.
Examples of “themes” from day 1, such as emergent properties, energy, and structure/function, plus protein structure.
2. Use Chapter 8 Optional Review in Mastering Biology before noon Friday (test day).
3. Prepare for the next class. Skim the next assigned chapter. Complete the “Before class” section of the lecturenotes for Thursday. “Before class” questions are in bold italics. Sometimes they will be at the beginning of the lecturenotes but not always. Be sure to scan all pages of the lecturenotes for bold, italic questions or directions.
4. Do the next Pre-Assignment in Mastering Biology.
...