BUS 211X : ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT
The difference between successful and unsuccessful organizations is the presence or absence of dynamic and effective leadership. The function of management is being viewed as not simply a set of practices and policies, but a crucial component in the total organization strategy. To play its role of enabling the organization gain and sustain competitive advantage, all managers have to play a leadership role especially in the present business environment which is getting increasingly flexible, innovative and dynamic.
Leadership is a concept that has generated much interest among academics and practicing managers, politicians and sociologists among others. In this lecture we shall examine some key aspects of leadership. To do so the following set of objectives will be the main focus.
Define and explain the meaning of leadership.
Explain the nature and importance of leadership.
Explain the difference between a leader and a manager
Identify and distinguish among the various research approaches to leadership.
Identify and discuss the various theories of leadership.
Explain the importance of leadership styles to management.
WHAT IS LEADERSHIP?
Leadership is an important aspect of management and the ability to lead is one of the keys to being an effective manager. The difference between success and failure whether in war, business, a protest movement or a soccer game can be attributed largely to leadership.
A large number of definitions can be found in the literature e.g.
Leadership is the art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically toward achievement of group goals.
Leadership is the ability of management to induce or spur subordinates to work towards group goals with confidence and keenness.
Leadership is the ability of a person to influence the thoughts and behavior of others towards the accomplishment of some goals or goal.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT
Leadership and management are closely related activities but distinguishable. Leaders and managers are not different people, but can be the same individual performing both roles. In recent years, theorists and practitioners in management have noted that, “to survive in the 21st century, organizations need a new generation of leaders, not managers”.
The fundamental difference between leaders and managers is that a manager focuses on the implementation of company policy while the leader tries to lead and inspire people to do their best for the company. A leader tries to cultivate a sense of commitment to the vision and mission of the company by inspiring the subordinates to willingly strive for the achievement of organizational objectives. A manager on the other hand manages employees by the power and authority delegated to him by his superiors. While leaders strive to conquer the volatile, turbulent and ambiguous surroundings that seem to conspire against business organizations, managers tend to surrender to them. In other words while managers administer, control, and accept the status quo, leaders innovate, inspire and change the status quo.
From the foregoing it is obvious that to increase the performance of any organization, all managers should also be good leaders. The goal of leadership studies and leadership training is to turn managers into leaders so that they can become better managers.
The Complementarity of management and leadership.
According to Brewster (1999), leadership and management qualities are complementary. These characteristics may be summarized as follows.
Administers and problem-solves.
Works within a system.
Focuses on control.
Short range view.
Accepts the status quo.
Sets things in motion by means of methods and techniques. 7.
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