CHAPTER 8: LEADERSHIP
What is leadership?
Leadership may be defined as the process of guiding and directing the behavior of people in the organization in order to achieve certain objectives. Leadership is that element that convinces members of an organization to behave in such a manner that will facilitate the accomplishment of the goals of the organization. The difference between leadership and management
1. Managers are more rational problem solvers, while leaders are intuitive, more visionary. 2. Managers perform other administrative functions such as planning, organizing, decision-making and communication. 3. Leaders are primarily concerned with results; managers are concerned with the efficiency of results. 4. Leaders obtain their power from below; managers obtain theirs from above. Kinds of leadership
1. Formal – refers to the process of influencing others to pursue official objectives. 2. Informal – refers to the process of influencing others to pursue unofficial objectives. Both kinds are said to be relying on expedient combination of reward, coercive, referent, and expert power. Classifications of the bases of power
1. Position power – is that power derived as consequences of the leader’s position. It consists of the following types: a. Legitimate power – referred to as authority, this power emanates from a person’s position in the organization. The legitimate power vested in a person is characterized by the following: 1. It is invested in a person’s position.
2. It is accepted by the subordinates.
3. Authority is used vertically.
b. Reward power – emanates from one’s ability to grant rewards to those who comply with a command or request. c. Coercive power – arises from the expectation of subordinates that they will be punished if they do not conform to the wishes of the leader.
2. Personal power – the leader’s personal power results from his personal characteristics. It may be any or both of the following: a. Expert power – an expert who possess and can dispense valued information generally exercise expert power over those in need of such information. b. Referent power - this refers to the ability of leaders to develop followers from the strength of their own personalities. Theories about leadership
Trait Theories. It considers leaders to possess common traits. Early researchers on leadership placed emphasis on traits and had resulted in the determination of a wide span of personal attributes. Factors that determine a leader on an average person:
4. Knowing how to get things done
6. Alertness to and insight to situations
10. Verbal facility
What good leaders have in common?
1. Extraversion – individuals who like being around people and are able to assert themselves. 2. Conscientiousness – individuals who are disciplined and keep commitments that they make. 3. Openness – individuals who are creative and flexible. 4. Emotional intelligence – individuals who are able to understand and manage their personal feelings and emotions, as well as their emotions towards other individuals, events, and objects. Behavioral Theories. These theories propose that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleaders. 1. Ohio State University Studies – researchers sought to identify independent dimensions of leader behavior. Over a thousand dimensions, they eventually narrowed the list to two categories that substantially accounted for most of the leadership behavior described by employees. a. Initiating structure – refers to the extent to which a leader is likely to define his or her role and those of employees in the search for goal attainment. b. Consideration – describes the degree to which the leader creates an environment of emotional support, warmth, friendliness, and trust.
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