OBJECTIVE
The objectives of this experiment are to investigate and verify the Thevenin’s theorem and to investigate and verify the Norton’s theorem. EQUIPMENT
Resistor 100Ω, 1kΩ and 4.7kΩ, digital multimeter(DVM), bread board. INTRODUCTION
Some circuits require more than one voltage source. Superposition theorem is a way to determine currents and voltages in a linear circuit that has multiple sources by taking one source at a time. the current in any given branch of a multiple-source linear circuit can be found by determining the currents in that particular branch produced by each source acting alone, with all other sources replaced by their internal resistances. The total current in the branch is the algebraic sum of the individual source currents in that branch. Thevenin’s theorem provides a method for simplifying a circuit to a standard equivalent form. This theorem can be used to simplify the analysis of series-parallel circuits. The Thevenin’s equivalent voltage (VTH) is the open circuit (no-load) voltage between two specified output terminals in a circuit. The Thevenin’s equivalent resistance (RTH) is the total resistance appearing between two specified output terminals in a circuit with all sources replaced by their internal resistance. Another method for simplifying a circuit to an equivalent form is Norton’s theorem. By reducing all of the element of a complex circuit to a single current source and a single source resistance, which supply power load, a simple circuit can be created.

PROCEDURE
Experiment 1: Super position theorem

Figure 1
The circuit connected as shown in figure 1. The current flow through each resistor is measured by using DVM. the current flow in each resistor are measured when V1 is removed. V 1 is reconnected and V2 is removed and the current flow in each resistor is measured. The values are recorded in Table 1. The actual current flows through each resistor are determined by superimposing all the currents in PART A...

...
Lab 3. Dc circuits and Ohm’s law of measurments
Helina Wolfe
Tannaz Farnoudi and Najah Rouse
Physics 246-205
Professor Joe Renaud
09/23/13
Word count:1453
Abstract:
The aim of this experiment was to understand the relationship between the variables of Ohm’s law and how they are part of an operation of an electric circuit.
Introduction:
This experiment was done in two parts. The first part consisted of understanding how to determine the current, voltage and resistance as part of Ohm’s law. The second part consisted of how to use the variables in an electrical current. Knowing how the variables are used in calculations and electrical currents is important in determining the value of the resistor and how it affects the current in the circuit. A device known as the multimeter is used to find the voltage and current in the circuit. Ohm's principal discovery was that the amount of electric current through a metal conductor in a circuit is directly proportional to the voltage impressed across it, for any given temperature. Ohm expressed his discovery in the form of a simple equation, describing how voltage, current, and resistance interrelate:
V= IR equation (1)
This continuous movement of free electrons through the conductors of a circuit is called a current (I). Current is often referred to in terms of “flow. The force motivating electrons to...

...Lee 1
Kwan Woo Lee
Lab Report#1 Measurements in resistive networks and circuit laws laboratory
Abstract:
The purpose of this lab is to verify the Ohm's Law, Kirchhoff's Voltage and Current Laws. As well as the introduction to the voltage division. The Ohm's Law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference across the two points (V = IR). The Kirchhoff's Voltage Law states that the directed sum of the electrical voltage around any closed network is zero. The Kirchhoff's Current Law states that the algebraic sum of currents in a network of conductors meeting at a point is zero. This lab report presents the lab results of 4 different parts of the lab and they provide experimented data, both numerical and visual, that verifies the Ohm's Law, Kirchhoff's Voltage and Current Laws.
Lee 2
Data:
Ohm's Law (part I)
Figure 1.1 Table 1.1 Vs -10V -5V 0V 5V 10V I -3.16mA -1.58mA 0.09mA 1.58mA 3.16mA V -6.86V -3.42V 0.19V 3.42V 6.86V
Current vs. Voltage
10 y = 2.169x - 0.001 voltage (V) 5 0 -2 -5 -10 current (mA) 0 2 4
-4
Graph 1.1 -The plot on the does not go through the origin, but it should. Ideally, when the voltage source is equal to 0V, both the voltage and the current should be 0V and 0mA respectively which will make the plot go through the origin; however, because of the resistance from the...

...Kirchhoff. Kirchhoff’s first law is his voltage law. Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) states that around any loop in a circuit, the voltage rises must equal the voltage drops. The next law that Kirchhoff introduced was his current law. Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL) states that the total current entering a junction must equal the total current leaving the junction. These laws, however, cannot be proven or tested without the aid of a multimeter. A multimeter is an instrument designed to measure electric current, voltage, and usually resistance, typically over several ranges of value. The multimeter has different programs to measure voltage, current, resistance, etc. produced from one of two types of circuits. The first type of circuit is a series circuit. A series circuit is a circuit in which the components are arranged end to end in such a way that the electric current flows through the first component, through the next component, and so on, until it reaches the source again. In contrast, a parallel circuit is a circuit in which the has more than one resistor and has multiple paths to move along. The main purpose of this lab was to prove the laws of Ohm and Kirchhoff. On another note, being able to take part in this lab taught my partner and I the fundamental skills of constructing series and parallel circuit and using a...

...
Experiment 5: RC Circuits
Abstract
The purpose of this lab is to learn and understand RC Circuits. An RC circuit is composed of at least one resistor and at least one capacitor. A capacitor is composed of two plates with either air or an insulator also known as a dielectric between the plates. We do not want the plates to be touching, because then we would only have a conductor. The insulator between the plates is also known as the dialectic, which affect how the capacitor will store charge. In an RC circuit, voltage will flow from the battery to the capacitor and through the resistor. When the capacitor is charging, the voltage across the battery is decreasing until the capacitor is fully charged. When the capacitor is fully charged, then the voltage through the battery is zero. That would also mean that the voltage of the circuit would drop until it is also zero. Now when the capacitor completely discharges, the voltage through the battery increases. We were able to measure the half-time of the charging and discharging of the capacitor by connecting the circuit to the oscilloscope with the signal generator providing the potential for the circuit. The time constant was calculated from the half-time of charging and discharging. The time constant is a measure of the length of time a capacitor took to charge and discharge. We used...

...Engineering EE 241- Electric Circuits I 3(3-0-0)
Required Course: Three 1-hour lectures per week
Semester 1, 2013-2014
•Course Instructor and/or Coordinator. •Course Description (catalog):
Linear circuit analysis and design course. Topics include fundamental topics of charge, current, voltage and power; passive circuit elements; mesh and nodal analysis, Thevenin's and Norton's theorems, source transformation; transient analysis in time. There are 3 lectures per week, each lasts for 1 hour.
Prerequisite(s):
Co-requisite(s): Math 240 Textbooks:
•Electric Circuits, 9th Edition, Nilsson/Riedel, Pearson Publishing Company, 2011, ISBN-10: 0-13-705051-8
•Handouts distributed by the instructor. References: •Foundation of Electric Circuits, 1st Edition, Cogdel, Prentice Hall, 1999, ISBN-10: 0139077421 • Circuit Analysis, 1st Edition, Jackson, Prentice Hall, 2006, ISBN-10: 0130932248 Instructor Time and Place Office Office Hours Telephone: Email: Dr. Mounir Bouzguenda
Sun/Tue/Thu 9:30 – 10:20 am, Room 1023B
Room :1051, College of Engineering, Bldg 31
Sun/Tue/Thu 10:30 – 11:30 am
9064 mbuzganda@kfu.edu.sa
Quizzes Homework Assignments Project + presentation Exam 1 Exam 2 Final Exam
10% 10% 20% 20% 20% 20%
1
Specific Outcomes of Instruction (Course Learning Outcomes):•
After completing the course, the student will be able to: CO1 CO2 CO3 CO4 CO5 CO6 CO7 CO8 Analyze...

...ELEC 202 LAB 1 REPORT
INTRODUCTION TO LABORATORY INSTRUMENTS AND RESISTIVE
CIRCUITS
Objectives:
The aim of the first experiment is to become familiar with lab instruments, get an idea about
their working structure and how to use them when necessary. In addition to that in the first
part of the experiment our aim is to read color codes of resistors and get idea about how to use
multimeter for resistor measurements. In the second part of the experiment our aim is to see
the operation of function generator and DC voltage source, how to use multimeter to measure
AC and DC voltage and how to use multimeter to measure AC and DC current. After
completing these parts our aim is to see the operation oscilloscope and analyze simple
circuits.
Experimental work;
In the first part of the experiment we read the colors of given resistors. There were 4 resistors
in the kit. Three of them were same because their colors at the right hand side were same an
done of them was different. The color of 3 resistors were orange and other one was red so
when we looked at the color code table our three resistors were 10.000 ohm and other resistor
was 1000 ohm.
After using color table we determined the values of resistors by using multimeter. While
measuring the values of the resistor by multimeter it is important to not to hold it by two
hands since the human body has an effect on it and wrong values can appear that’s...

...PHY 156 4870
Lab Report #6: RC Circuits
October 14th, 2011
Objectives:
The purpose of this lab is to observe the charge and discharge curves of a capacitor and determine its time constant. The capacitor is observed with respect to the voltage traveling through the capacitor.
Principles:
One of the main principles of this experiment is defined by V = VB [1 – exp (-t/RC)] for a charging capacitor and furthermore, τ is defined by resistance multiplied by capacitance(R * C). Thus, it is important to understand that as the capacitor is charged, over time the voltage will increase rapidly and eventually level off. Also, the other principle of this experiment is defined by by V = VB [exp (-t/RC)] for when a capacitor is discharging, thus the voltage will decrease rapidly over time and eventually level off as well before reaching zero.
Apparatus & Procedure:
This experiment required the use of a 1.5 V D-size battery, a battery holder, a digital multimeter, a 220μF capacitor, a 100 KΩ resistor, a DPDT switch, connecting wires, alligator clips, and a stopwatch.
After the apparatus was set up and the multimeter was connected to the capacitor, the first procedure required the capacitor to be charged via throwing the switch towards the battery and simultaneously starting the timer. The voltage across the capacitor was recorded every 5 seconds until the voltage reached a value close the max voltage of the battery...

...Sixth Edition, last update July 25, 2007
2
Lessons In Electric Circuits, Volume II – AC
By Tony R. Kuphaldt Sixth Edition, last update July 25, 2007
i c 2000-2010, Tony R. Kuphaldt This book is published under the terms and conditions of the Design Science License. These terms and conditions allow for free copying, distribution, and/or modiﬁcation of this document by the general public. The full Design Science License text is included in the last chapter. As an open and collaboratively developed text, this book is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the Design Science License for more details. Available in its entirety as part of the Open Book Project collection at: www.ibiblio.org/obp/electricCircuits
PRINTING HISTORY • First Edition: Printed in June of 2000. Plain-ASCII illustrations for universal computer readability. • Second Edition: Printed in September of 2000. Illustrations reworked in standard graphic (eps and jpeg) format. Source ﬁles translated to Texinfo format for easy online and printed publication. • Third Edition: Equations and tables reworked as graphic images rather than plain-ASCII text. • Fourth Edition: Printed in November 2001. Source ﬁles translated to SubML format. SubML is a simple markup language designed to easily convert to other markups like A LTEX, HTML, or DocBook using nothing but...