Lab 12

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1. What is an ionic bond?
Typically an ionic bond occurs between one metal and one non-metal ion. One atom borrows one or more electrons from another atom. An ionic bond is a type of chemical bond that occurs when one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains an electron to form a negative ion, which then result in attraction.

2. What is a covalent bond?
A covalent bond is a bond that occurs when atoms in a molecule share a pair of electrons. For example, “the atoms in sugar do not form ions; instead, they are held together because of shared electrons.”

3. Do you think sugar or salt will melt at a higher temperature? Explain your answer.
Since sugar is composed of covalent bonds and salt composed of ionic bonds, I think salt will take a higher temperature to melt because salt is bonded together by stronger bonds. Ionic bonds are much stronger than covalent bonds. Covalent bonds are not as strong as ionic bonds so it will not require such a high temperature to make sugar melt.

Part 1
Observations for the sugar solution:
There were occasional bubbles off of the steel screw, but no lines of black or yellow off of either like with the salt solution.

Observations for the salt solution:
The iron nail gave off constant “streaks” of a blue/green color. The steel screw had constant “streaks” of yellow as well as many, many tiny bubbles the entire time. The nail also got much more dark after the salt solution.

Part 2:
Observations for the melting of sugar:
Almost immediately the sugar began to melt. At first the sugar just turned from a pure, solid white to a white sugar that almost looked like more of a liquid. Then the sugar began to “pop” into tiny bubbles and quickly got faster. The tiny bubbles would then “grow” into larger brown bubbles.

Observations for the salt solution:
The salt solution created quiet popping noises after several seconds of being held above the candle. The salt took much longer...
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