The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change that aims at reduction of Green House Gases (GHGs) and others like CFCs. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005. Currently, there are 192 Parties (191 States and 1 regional economic integration organization) to the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC.
Participation in the Kyoto Protocol, where dark green indicates countries that have signed and ratified the treaty and yellow indicates states that have signed and hope to ratify the treaty. Notably, Australia and the United States have signed but, currently, decline to ratify it. Participating countries that have ratified the Kyoto Protocol have committed to cut emissions of not only carbon dioxide, but of also other greenhouse gases, like, Methane (CH4), Nitrous oxide (N2O), Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), Perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). The goals of Kyoto were to see participants collectively reducing emissions of greenhouse gases by 5.2% below the emission levels of 1990. This goal is to be achieved by the year 2012. While the 5.2% figure is a collective one, individual countries were assigned higher or lower targets and some countries were permitted increases. Recognizing that developed countries are principally responsible for the current high levels of GHG emissions in the atmosphere as a result of more than 150 years of industrial activity, the Protocol places a heavier burden on developed nations. Under the Protocol, 37 industrialized countries and the European Union (called "Annex I countries") commit themselves to a reduction of four greenhouse gases (GHG) and two groups of gases (hydrofluorocarbons and perfluorocarbons) produced by them and all other member countries give general commitments. The total percentage of Annex I Parties emissions is 63.7%. Any Annex 1...
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