Knowledge Management

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What Is Knowledge Management?
Knowledge Management is one of the hottest topics today in both the industry world and information research world. In our daily life, we deal with huge amount of data and information. Data and information is not knowledge until we know how to dig the value out of of it. This is the reason we need knowledge management. Unfortunately, there's no universal definition of knowledge management, just as there's no agreement as to what constitutes knowledge in the first place. We chose the following definition for knowledge management for its simplicity and broad context. * Simple Definition:

Knowledge Management (KM) refers to a multi-disciplined approach to achieving organizational objectives by making the best use of knowledge. KM focuses on processes such as acquiring, creating and sharing knowledge and the cultural and technical foundations that support them. * Knowledge Management may be viewed in terms of:

* People – how do you increase the ability of an individual in the organisation to influence others with their knowledge * Processes – Its approach varies from organization to organization. There is no limit on the number of processes * Technology – It needs to be chosen only after all the requirements of a knowledge management initiative have been established. Or

* Culture –The biggest enabler of successful knowledge-driven organizations is the establishment of a knowledge-focused culture * Structure – the business processes and organisational structures that facilitate knowledge sharing * Technology – a crucial enabler rather than the solution. What Is Knowledge Management Related To?

Knowledge management draws from a wide range of disciplines and technologies: * Cognitive science

* Expert systems, artificial intelligence and knowledge base management systems (KBMS)

* Computer-supported collaborative work (groupware)

* Library and information science

* Technical writing

* Document management

* Decision support systems

* Semantic networks

* Relational and object databases

* Simulation

* Organizational science

* object-oriented information modeling

* electronic publishing technology, hypertext, and the World Wide Web; help-desk technology

* full-text search and retrieval

* performance support systems
Although around 20 kinds of disciplines and study areas were listed above, there is no way to include all of the related subjects to knowledge management. The History of Knowledge Management
1. 70's, A number of management theorists have contributed to the evolution of knowledge management * Peter Drucker: information and knowledge as organizational resources

* Peter Senge: "learning organization"

* Leonard-Barton: well-known case study of "Chaparral Steel ", a company having knowledge management strategy  2. 80's, 
* Knowledge (and its expression in professional competence) as a competitive asset was apparent

* Managing knowledge that relied on work done in artificial intelligence and expert systems

* Knowledge management-related articles began appearing in journals and books

3. 90's until now,
* A number of management consulting firms had begun in-house knowledge management programs

* Knowledge management was introduced in the popular press, the most widely read work to date is Ikujiro Nonaka’s and Hirotaka Takeuchi’s The Knowledge-Creating Company: How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation (1995)

* The International Knowledge Management Network(IKMN) went online in 1994 * Knowledge management has become big business for such major international consulting firms as Ernst & Young, Arthur Andersen, and Booz-Allen & Hamilton The Value of Knowledge Management

Some benefits of KM correlate directly to bottom-line savings, while others are more difficult to quantify. In today's...
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