Knowledge Booklet 3pdl

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Explain the principles of Adult learning and the learning cycle.

Motivation –Adult learner needs to understand the need for the learning without feeling intimidated or offended. Trainers need to build rapport and welcome the learners into an open and friendly climate. Trainers should set an appropriate level of concern depending on the importance of the objective, bearing in mind that learning is best received in a low to moderate stress setting. An appropriate level of difficulty needs to be set to challenge the learner but not too high that they become frustrated with too much information.

Reinforcement – An important part of learning. Trainers can encourage correct types of behaviour. Trainers should use both positive and negative reinforcement as adults already have their own experiences which have influenced certain behaviours. The positive reinforcement will increase good behaviour, the negative reinforcement strengthens a behaviour because a negative condition is avoided as a consequence of the behaviour.

Retention – Students must retain information from the learning in order to benefit from it. If the participants did not learn the material well initially, they will not retain it well. The adult leaner needs to see a meaning for the information and be able to interpret and apply the learning for it to be successful.

Transference – Is the ability to put into practice within a new setting, what has been learnt. This is most likely to happen when; the learning can be associated with something already known, is similar to material already known, original learning was high and when the student sees the benefit of the information learned is key to them doing their job better.

In the cycle of learning, learners must make the link between the theory and action by planning, acting out, reflecting and relating it back to the theory.

Kolb's Learning Cycle

Concrete Experience - Feeling
Reflective Observation - Watching
Abstract Conceptualization - Thinking
Active Experimentation - Doing

2.Describe 4 different learning styles.
Activist: Learn by doing. Need to get their hands dirty, involving themselves fully and without bias in new experiences. Theorist: Like to understand theory behind the actions. Need models, concepts and facts to engage in the learning process. Prefer to analyse, drawing new information into a logical 'theory'. Pragmatist: Need to see how to put the learning into practice in the real world. Are experimenters and like to try out new ideas, theories and techniques to see if they work. Reflector: Learn by observing and thinking about what happened. Prefer to stand back, view experiences from different perspectives, collecting data and taking time to work towards an appropriate conclusion.


3.Explain potential barriers to learning.
Previous experience - A negative experience of learning at school can influence how interested someone is to further training. Will affect their willingness to learn and motivation during learning. Negative aptitude - When an individual lacks the competency to do a certain type of work at a certain level. This can either be physical or mental. Prior attainment - Learners who have missed out on the basics of the subject may well find this an obstacle to further learning .i.e. lack of essential literacy or IT skills. Motivation -Fear of failure and lack of confidence possibly linked to previous negative experience.

Environment - If not comfortable makes it difficult for learners to concentrate and or reduce their participation in the learning .i.e. extremes of temperature, Poor/broken equipment.


4.Explain 4 organisational factors (1 of which must be stakeholder requirements) that impact on the design of L&D activities. Financial – Costs will not be limited to the design and implementation but also to costs incurred when employees are away from their job. The business will need to know what the tangible returns will be on...
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