Kingdom Animalia

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* Are made of animal cells
* No cell walls
* Eukaryotic. Lysosomes, centrioles. Flagella, cilia
* Multicellular
* Heterotrophic
* Chemotrophic
* They are either:
1. Invertebrates
* Have no back bone
2. Vertebrates
Things to classify Animals:
1. Feeding
2. Respiration
3. Internal Transport
4. Excretion
5. Response
6. Movement
7. Reproduction
Phylum Porifera
* The flagella move water into the sponge
* Cells collect nutrients in the water before it leaves the sponge * Internal transport> have cells like amoeboids to crawl around; hands out nutrients 1. Reproduction
* It is a hermaphrodite
* Can do budding (Asexual)
* Sexual reproduction
* Keeps eggs inside and send out millions of sperm 2. Response
* Does not usually respond
3. Exertion
* Pees in the water
4. Movement
* Does not move
5. Feeding
* Drinks water and filters for nutrients
6. Internal Transport
* Importance:
* Homes for marine fish and worms
Trends in Animals
* More complex, specialized cells which form tissues and organs * Radial>bilateral symmetry
* Cephalization is the centration of sense organs in the anterior region * The rear end is the posterior
* The Dorsal is the back
* The ventral is the front
Phylum Cnidaria
* Example jellyfish
* Have two forms
*
*
* Tentacles have nematocysts which are poisons filled sacs with a coiled needle * Mouth is entrance and exit. Many jellyfish have symbiosis with photosynthetic protists. Jellyfish have no brains but have a simple reserve net to coordinate tentacle movement. * Many also have photoreceptors so they can swim towards the light * For reproduction, they do external fertilization

* They have a very simple nervous system
* Gastro vascular cavity is a method for respiration
Phylum Platyhelminthes (Flat Worms)
* Simplest organisms with bilateral symmetry
* First organism with cephalization
* Cephalization is specialization of cells into tissue (development into nerves) * 2 nerve chords
* Free-Living (not a parasite or carnivore)
* Saprobes
* Detritivores
* Feeding
* have a muscular pharynx to suck water/food into their gastro vascular cavity * Have branched intestines connected to the gastro vascular cavity for digestion * Wastes leaves through the mouth

* Internal Transport
* Covered by intestines
* Excretion
* Flame cells remove excess water (H2O) and ammonia(NH3) * Response
* Have well developed ganglia that are almost a brain (concentration of nerves) * Brain controls movement and detects stimuli from eye spots * Movement
* Varies
* Planaria-muscles
* Others have cilia or flagella for movement
* Many parasite use their host for movement
* Reproduction
* Many are so simple that they can regenerate
* Many also do external fertilization
* Respiration
* Similar to Jelly Fish
* No specialized system
* Also known as flat worms
* Get oxygen from intestines or water
* Example: Flukes
* Mainly found in South East Asia and North Africa
* Blood flukes eggs are often in meant, especially in pork * Their eggs are resistant to stomach acid
* Eggs hatch in the small intestine and larva eat the intestines to make their way into the blood * After they are in the blood, they start to eat the heart and the liver * Fluke come back into the intestine and lay their eggs * Example: Tapeworms

* Eggs resistant to acid
* Hatch into a specialized worm
*
* Scolex is for attachment to the intestine
* Proglottids- makes 100,000 eggs each
* Tapeworms eggs are eaten in incompletely cooked meat...
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